4 Market SegmentationDivision of total market into smaller, relatively homogeneous groups– kurtz, Boone –Dividing market into smaller groups with distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes– Philip Kotler –Clustering people with similar needs into a “market segment” (a relatively homogeneous group of customers who will respond to a marketing a similar way) – Perreault, Cannon, McCarthy –Segmentasi berarti melihat pasar secara kreatif – Hermawan Kartajaya, Rethinking Marketing –
5 Segmentation Variables for Consumer Markets :Product-related market
7 This fridge with a built in TV is targeted to the owner who watches television in the kitchen and has a design that faces the fridge (behavioral variables)Nutrition bars are targeted to varying demographics including men, women and children (demographic variables)
16 Target Marketing Strategies Undifferentiated marketing targets the whole market with one offerMass marketingFocuses on common needs rather than what’s differentDifferentiated marketing targets several different market segments and designs separate offers for eachGoal is to achieve higher sales and stronger positionMore expensive than undifferentiated marketingConcentrated marketing targets a small share of a large marketLimited company resourcesKnowledge of the marketMore effective and efficientMicromarketing is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locationsLocal marketingIndividual marketingLocal marketing involves tailoring brands and promotion to the needs and wants of local customer groupsCitiesNeighborhoodsStoresIndividual marketing involves tailoring products and marketing programs to the needs and preferences of individual customersAlso known as:One-to-one marketingMass customizationMarkets-of-one marketingMass customization is the process through which firms interact one-to-one with masses of customers to design products and services tailor-made to meet individual needs. Has made relationships with customers important in the new economy.Provides a way to distinguish the company against competitors
22 Product differentiation Service differentiation Identifying a set of possible competitive advantages to build a position by providing superior value from :Product differentiationService differentiationChannel differentiationPeople differentiationImage differentiation
23 Positioning Perceptions Impressions Feelings The way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes — the place the product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing productsPerceptionsImpressionsFeelings
24 Perception“Many people believe that the basic issue in marketing is convincing customers you have a better product, that in the long run the best product will win.Not true… It's an illusion…there is no objective reality. The perception is the reality. Marketing is battle of perceptions, not products All that exists in the world of marketing are perceptions in the mind of customers “Source: the 22 immutable laws of marketing by Jack Trout, Al Ries
25 Perceptions for Different Brands of Bar Soap Positioning and DifferentiationPositioning analysis is based on how (potential) customers think about a firm's current or potential offeringPositioning considers how customers think about competitors' offerings as well as the firm’s own offeringPositioning analysis identifies what kind of offering different segments see as idealDifferentiation focuses on developing a marketing mix that target customers will see as distinct from competing mixesPositioning and differentiation help with combining and segmenting, by revealing which segments view the market in similar (or dissimilar) ways
26 Positioning Statement (PS) PS states the product’s membership in a category and then shows its point-of-difference from other members of the category.Examples :
28 Dunkin versus Starbucks. DiscussIt’s the timeof the great coffee wars:Dunkin versus Starbucks.Discuss the target market for each company’s coffee.Are these just consumer markets, or is there a business market for them as well?
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