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 Binders have been called the most important processing additive during ceramic sintering process (firing).  Ceramic binders are quite expensive, reaching.

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Presentation on theme: " Binders have been called the most important processing additive during ceramic sintering process (firing).  Ceramic binders are quite expensive, reaching."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Binders have been called the most important processing additive during ceramic sintering process (firing).  Ceramic binders are quite expensive, reaching from $2000 to $3000 per metric tons and is multiplied since it is imported from other countries.  The researchers plan to produce an alternative binder utilizing jackfruit peeling as the raw material.

3  The study will evaluate the feasibility of the Jackfruit peeling as an effective raw material in the formulation of alternative ceramic binder to standard whiteware plastic mass.

4  The study will only encompass the utilization of jackfruit peeling as an ALTERNATIVE CERAMIC BINDER.  Shrinkage (%drying and %firing shrinkage), %loss on ignition and modulus of rupture of the standard whiteware plastic mass formed using the binder utilized from the jackfruit peeling will be determined.

5 300g jackfruit pulp & 350 ml water Ground (Blender) 1500 ml jackfruit pulp Strained (Strainer) 1000 ml jackfruit pulp (ready for use) Figure 1.1 Preparation of Jackfruit Pulp as Binder

6 Forming the Plastic Mass using two different treatments. (Water and jackfruit pulp as binders) Determination of %firing shrinkage of the test bars in each of the two treatments Determination of %drying shrinkage of the test bars in each of the two treatments. Determination of %loss on ignition of the test bars in each of the two treatments Determination of Modulus of Rupture of the test bars in each of the two treatments. Figure 1.2 Experimental Methodology

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8 Fired Test Bars Firing Set-up

9 Measuring Length using Vernier Caliper Wieghing of test bars

10 Modulus of Rupture Test using Versa Loader with improvised attachments

11 Test Bar Initial Length (cm) Oven-dried Length (cm) Fired Length (cm) %Drying Shrinkage %Firing Shrinkage W11715.615.58.240.64 W21715.6 8.240.00 W31715.515.38.821.29 W41715.415.39.410.65 W51715.415.29.411.30 W61715.515.38.821.29 W71715.415.19.411.95 W81715.415.29.411.30 W91715.4 9.410.00 W101715.415.39.410.65 W111715.515.38.821.29 W121715.515.28.821.94 W131715.4159.412.60 W141715.515.48.820.65

12 Test Bar Initial Length (cm) Oven-dried Length (cm) Fired Length (cm) %Drying Shrinkage %Firing Shrinkage J11715.114.711.182.65 J21715.214.810.592.63 J31715.214.810.592.63 J4171514.911.760.67 J51715.114.911.181.32 J61715.4159.412.60 J71715.214.810.592.63 J81715.414.99.413.25 J91715.214.810.592.63 J101715.214.910.591.97 J11171514.811.761.33 J121715.214.910.591.97 J131715.314.810.003.27 J141715.21510.591.32

13 Test Bar Oven-dried weight (g) Fired weight (g) %loss on ignition W1105.597.17.96 W2109.7100.58.39 W3104.996.28.29 W4105.997.28.22 W5105.196.58.18 W6106.7988.15 W7103.1957.86 W8107.899.18.07 W9105.796.98.33 W10105.997.28.22 W11106.898.18.15 W12108.199.18.33 W13107.798.48.64 W14108.299.28.32

14 Test Bar Oven-dried weight (g) Fired weight (g) %loss on ignition J197.787.910.03 J297.887.910.12 J39989.39.80 J497.387.89.76 J598.889.19.82 J69989.59.60 J797.288.19.36 J8101.591.99.46 J9102.392.89.29 J10104.394.69.30 J11106.196.29.33 J1298.388.99.56 J1399.490.39.15 J14101.692.19.35

15 Test bar Force Applied (kg) Distance between supporting blocks (cm)Width (cm)Height (cm) Modulus of Rupture(kg /cm2) W146.87122.1 91.10 W251.40122.12110.13 W351.40122.12110.13 W446.871222105.46 W546.87122.12100.44 W646.87122.12100.44 W746.87122.22.186.96 W837.82122.12.266.98 W946.87122.1 91.10 W1046.87122.12100.44 W1146.87122.12100.44 W1246.87122.12100.44 W1355.92122.1 108.69 W1437.82122285.09

16 Test bar Force Applied (kg) Distance between supporting blocks (cm)Width (cm)Height (cm) Modulus of Rupture(kg/ cm2) J142.351222.186.42 J237.82122.1281.04 J337.82122.1 73.51 J437.82122.1 73.51 J537.82122.22.170.17 J637.82122285.09 J733.29122.1271.35 J842.35122.12.274.99 J946.87122.1 91.10 J1037.82122.1 73.51 J1142.35122.12.274.99 J1237.82122.1281.04 J1342.35122.1290.74 J1437.82122.2 63.93

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18  T-test was used to compare the two treatments and determine if there is a significant difference between the test bars that were subjected to different experimentations.

19 (Drying Shrinkage)WaterJackfruit Mean9.0336134453781510.6302521008403 Observations14 Hypothesized Difference0 Difference-1.59663865546219 p-value (two-tailed at α=0.05) 1.32082324797673E-07

20 (Firing Shrinkage)WaterJackfruit Mean1.109585498986422.20536523702502 Observations14 Hypothesized Difference0 Difference-1.0957797380386 p-value (two-tailed at α=0.05).0008

21 (Loss on Ignition)WaterJackfruit Mean8.220450458010219.56673283520003 Observations14 Hypothesized Difference0 Difference-1.34628237718982 p-value (two-tailed at α=0.05) 8.57E-14

22 (Modulus of Rupture)WaterJackfruit Mean96.988275487571677.9564091574248 Observations14 Hypothesized Difference0 Difference19.0318663301468 p-value (two-tailed at α=0.05) 3.75E-05

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25  The %drying and %firing shrinkage of the test bars that use jackfruit pulp as binder was observed to be higher than those of the test bars that use water as binder.  The test bars that use jackfruit pulp as binder have higher %loss on ignition compared to those test bars that use water as binder.  The modulus of rupture of the test bars that use jackfruit pulp as binder was observed to be higher than those of the test bars that use water as binder.

26  The experimentations showed that jackfruit peeling is feasible as an alternative ceramic binder to standard whiteware plastic mass.  However, the data gathered and statistical interpretations showed a low quality ceramic binder regarding the utilization of jackfruit peeling into such.

27  Usage of other organic material similar to jackfruit as the raw material.  Other formulation of the binding material.  Finer binding material with less particles present.

28  California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. (1996). Jackfruit. Retrieved from California Rare Fruit Growers website: http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/jackfruit.html http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/jackfruit.html  Encyclopædia Britannica. (2012). whiteware. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/642810/white ware http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/642810/white ware  Instron. (2008). Modulus of Rupture. Retrieved from http://www.instron.us/wa/glossary/Modulus-of- Rupture.aspx?ref=http://www.google.com.ph/url http://www.instron.us/wa/glossary/Modulus-of- Rupture.aspx?ref=http://www.google.com.ph/url  ETH-IMP Analytical Lab. (2004, April 8). Loss on Ignition. Retrieved from http://www.xrf.ethz.ch/xrf_instr_LOI.htmlhttp://www.xrf.ethz.ch/xrf_instr_LOI.html

29  Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. (July 2002). Drying Shrinkage. Retrieved from http://www.concrete.net.au/publications/pdf/profshrin kage.pdf http://www.concrete.net.au/publications/pdf/profshrin kage.pdf  Minerals Zone. (2005). Fire clay. Retrieved from http://www.mineralszone.com/minerals/fire-clay.html http://www.mineralszone.com/minerals/fire-clay.html  William M.K. Trochim. (2006). T-test. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php  Jessica Elzea Kogal. (2006). Forming Methods for Whiteware Products. In Industrial Minerals and Rocks: Commodities, Markets and Uses (p. 1357). SME.

30  T-test. (2011). In faculty.vassar, HTML. Retrieved from http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/ch11pt1.html http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/ch11pt1.html  Jackfruit. (2011). In tradewindsfruit, HTM. Retrieved from http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/jackfruit.htm http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/jackfruit.htm  Ceramic binders. (2006). In digitalfire, HTML. Retrieved from http://digitalfire.com/4sight/education/binders_for_cer amic_bodies_345.html http://digitalfire.com/4sight/education/binders_for_cer amic_bodies_345.html  Ceramics. (2012). In Britannica, Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/103129/i ndustrial-ceramics/ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/103129/i ndustrial-ceramics/

31  Whiteware. (2011). In Britannica, Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64281 0/whitewarehttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64281 0/whiteware  Loss on ignition.(2011). In xrf.ethz, HTML. Retrieved from http://www.xrf.ethz.ch/xrf_instr_LOI.html http://www.xrf.ethz.ch/xrf_instr_LOI.html  Dry shrinkage.(2011). In concrete.net.au, PDF. Retrieved from http://www.concrete.net.au/publications/pdf/profshrinka ge.pdf http://www.concrete.net.au/publications/pdf/profshrinka ge.pdf  Fire shrinkage (2011). In ceramicindustry, Articles. Retrieved from http://www.ceramicindustry.com/articles/ppp-clay- body-shrinkage-absorptionhttp://www.ceramicindustry.com/articles/ppp-clay- body-shrinkage-absorption  Modulus of rupture. (2011). In ejpayne, HTM. Retrieved from http://www.ejpayne.com/uploads/pdf/MOR.pdfhttp://www.ejpayne.com/uploads/pdf/MOR.pdf

32 The Feasibility of Jackfruit Peeling as Binder to Whiteware Plastic Mass. RESEARCH PRESENTATION PREPARED BY AHMAD JOHARI ABBAS AND JEREMIAH CABILI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2012.


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