OPM Process http://openprovenance.org/primitives#align_warp id: xs:ID implies uniqueness within document account membership label: for pretty printing annotation: set of property key value pairs
OPM Artifact /shomewhere/pc1/reference.img id: xs:ID implies uniqueness within document account membership label: for pretty printing annotation: set of property key value pairs opm:type: a predefined OPM annotation, with compact syntax
History of RDF bindings Tupelo (Futrelle) OWL ontology from Tupelo OWL ontology from Paulson OWL ontology in OPM Toolbox OWL ontology by Tetherless Team (PC3)
OWL Ontology for OPM (1) OPM toolbox allows for conversion from XML to RDF and back Ontology design principle: – XML toplevel element corresponds to a OWL class – Introduce an OPMGraph class – Make graph membership explicit by means of properties
OWL Ontology for OPM (1) Limitations – OPM edges are reified, i.e. represented as classes and not properties – Transitive closure of OPM edges cannot be expressed – Annotations are reified too – Not natural RDF representation See http://www.jenitennison.com/blog/node/142 for a discussion http://www.jenitennison.com/blog/node/142 But fully compatible with XML!
OWL Ontology (2) OPM inferences could alternatively be encoded as SWRL rules Problematic in the presence of multiple accounts: it is meaningless to make inference over properties corresponding to edges belonging to multiple accounts A solution is to use named graphs to represent accounts What is the semantics of OWL+SWRL+Named Graphs+SPARQL? What is the complexity?
Conclusion on OPM Bindings Two compatible bindings for RDF and XML, with lossless conversions (up to node naming) Converter makes extra-assumptions on identifiers (xs:ID in XML schema and URI in RDF) Scope of an OPM graph is not clear in RDF What other binding would be useful? Challenges in implementing OPM with Semantic Web technologies Jun Zhao’s OPMV is an emerging alternative serialization of OPM in RDF