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The Immediate Prospects for the Application of Ontologies in Digital Libraries Jody DeRidder Spring 2007 IS 565, Digital Libraries Dr. Suzie Allard, Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "The Immediate Prospects for the Application of Ontologies in Digital Libraries Jody DeRidder Spring 2007 IS 565, Digital Libraries Dr. Suzie Allard, Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Immediate Prospects for the Application of Ontologies in Digital Libraries Jody DeRidder Spring 2007 IS 565, Digital Libraries Dr. Suzie Allard, Professor

2 What are Ontologies? Thesaurus: …. And MORE!! Parent Child Instance: Andy is a child. Sarah is a child. NT Father NT Daughter Relation: “fight” NT Mother NT Son Axiom: Sarah and Andy always fight. RT Child RT Parent Constraint: Until their parents stop them! An ontology is like an expanded thesaurus. Methods of encoding our concepts and their relationships so computers can understand us, and help us find what we need.

3 Ontology components (constructs)  concepts (and their properties)  instances (examples of concepts)  relations  axioms (always true)  constraints (only true if) Wine Beringer White Zinfandel Grapes Zinfandel Grapes Type of Made From BUT!! Only when produced by Beringer Corp. White Zinfandel Type of Produces Always Made From Type of Made From

4 Lightweight Ontologies: are little more than taxonomies, and include:  concepts,  properties that describe concepts, and  relationships. An example of this would be Dublin Core Heavyweight ontologies: also include  axioms and  logic constraints An example of this would be Cyc Ontology Types: Depth of Territory The more heavyweight the ontology is, the more expressive and powerful – and the more complex and costly to create, implement, and maintain.

5 Global Ontologies Domain Ontologies Application Ontologies Ontology Types: Breadth of Territory Simpler for computer applications if we can all map to a single global ontology – but MUCH more difficult for humans to agree on, implement, and maintain. BotanyArtHistory Creating Lesson Plans Identifying Diseases By Symptomology

6 An Audio Tape Ontology Example

7 An example use of an ontology in education… Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype

8 -- where you can select a food and the software will choose appropriate wines to accompany your meal. An example you can play with: Wine Agent 1.0 How does it work? If seafood is tagged as having the property of requiring a dry white wine; and swordfish is listed as an instance (type) of seafood; and a certain Swiss Chardonnay has been added as an instance (type) of dry white wine– then when you ask what wine to serve with swordfish, this Chardonnay would be suggested to accompany your dinner.

9 Ontology Mapping So… we all speak different “languages” or ontologies; to support searching across the variation of terms, we need to map each ontology onto the others… a form of translation. One such ontology mapping language is XeOml, which allows one-to-one or one-to-many mappings between elements of two ontologies. From: Harebell Downiniga elegans showy downinig a Purple flower

10 Problems in Ontology Mapping Michael Klein,

11 How do query engines use ontology mapping? An example from OBSERVER [Mena, 2000]

12 Standards, the bottom line for interoperability To represent knowledge so that computers can “understand” us, we need to use formats they can process, and a language they can understand. For applications to be interoperable, we need agreed-upon standards:  Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a simple notation for representing relationships between and among concepts. Each concept is represented by a URL.  Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a more complex artificial language for the exact description of things and their relationships.

13 RDFRDF: Resource Description Framework Eric Miller

14 OWLOWL: Web Ontology Language OWL and RDF have similarities, but OWL is a much stronger language with greater machine interpretability than RDF. Three Sublanguages: * OWL Lite Hierarchical Classification, simple constraints. Three Sublanguages * OWL DL Description Logic: as expressive as is possible while maintaining the logic needed for computers to reason and make inferences. * OWL Full Maximum expressiveness with no computational guarantees. Think of this OWL and RDF as frameworks for concepts and their possible relations. You use the framework to encode the Ontology.

15 Ontologies… who needs them?  Findability  Query Expansion  Reasoning …to help us sift through the exponential growth of digital materials We do!!!

16 Ontology Implementation Tasks Simperl and Tempich, 2006

17 What are the costs? Product factors complexity of the domain analysis, conceptualization, implementation, instantiation, evaluation, integration, reusability, and documentation Personnel factors ontologist/domain expert capability & experience, language and tool experience, and personnel continuity Project factors tool support, multi-site development, required development schedule Reuse/maintenance factors ontology understandability, domain/expert unfamiliarity, complexity of evaluation, modifications, and translations ONTOCOM: How complex is your ontology? Heavyweight or lightweight? And how broad is your domain?

18 Where are ontologies most feasible?  Commercial Ventures and Commercially Funded Research Example: Xyleme  Government (especially Defense) Example: Ontology Works  Possibly Education ? If you work in one of these areas, * you * will likely be using ontologies!

19 For the rest of us… If you are in a general purpose digital library, and you have the funding: start the research (what is your target audience’s terminology, versus the terminology of your content descriptions?) watch the tools develop, and test them watch for domain and global ontologies that are given the W3C stamp of approval!... IT WON’T BE LONG NOW! Until the development, application, and maintenance becomes cheaper and easier, ontologies will not be feasible for general purpose digital libraries without major ongoing funding.

20 Bibliography Simperl, Elena Paslaru Bontas and Christoph Tempich. “Ontology Engineering: a Reality Check.” 5th International Conference on Ontologies, Databases, and Applications of Semantics, (16 March 2007).http://ontocom.ag-nbi.de/docs/odbase2006.pdf Bontas, Elena Paslaru and Malgorzata Mochol. “Ontology Engineering Cost Estimation with ONTOCOM.” Technical Report TR-B-06-01, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 7 February (16 March 2007).http://ontocom.ag-nbi.de/docs/tr-b pdf Data, Refnes. "Introduction to OWL.” W3Schools, (1 April 2007). de Bruijn, Jos. “Using Ontologies: Enabling Knowledge Sharing and Reuse on the Semantic Web.” Digital Enterprise Research Institute Technical Report DERI , October (13 March 2007).http://www.deri.at/fileadmin/documents/DERI-TR pdf Doerr, Martin, Jane Hunter, and Carl Lagoze. “Towards a Core Ontology for Information Integration.” Journal of Digital Information, 4:1, Article 169, 9 April (3 February 2007).http://jodi.ecs.soton.ac.uk/Articles/v04/i01/Doerr/ Hsu, Eric L. “Wine Agent: How does it work?” Stanford University Knowledge Systems Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 8 April (3 February 2007).http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/projects/wine/explanation.html Hunter, Jane. “MetaNet – A Metadata Term Thesaurus to Enable Semantic Interoperability Between Metadata Domains.” Journal of Digital Information, 1:8, No. 42, 8 February (24 February 2007).http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v01/i08/Hunter/ Institut für Informatik. “ONTOCOM Cost Drivers.” Institut für Informatik, Networked Information Systems, Freie Universität Berlin, (1 April 2007).http://ontocom.ag-nbi.de/ontocom.html

21 Bibliography, continued International Conference on Ontologies, Databases, and Applications of Semantics, (16 March 2007).http://ontocom.ag-nbi.de/docs/odbase2006.pdf Klein, Michael. “Combining and Relating Ontologies: An Analysis of Problems and Solutions.” International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Workshop on Ontologies and Information Sharing, (13 March 2007).http://www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/agki/www/buster/IJCAIwp/Finals/klein.pdf Mena, Eduardo, et. al. “OBSERVER: An Approach for Query Processing in Global Information Systems Based on Interoperation Across Pre-Existing Ontologies.” Distributed and Parallel Databases, 8, , Menzies, Tim. “Cost Benefits of Ontologies.” Intelligence, Fall Copyright 1997 Don Bishop, Artville, LLC. Milam, John. “Ontologies in Higher Education.” HigherEd.org, (1 April 2007)http://highered.org/docs/milam-ontology.pdf Ontology Works, Inc. “Ontology Works Knowledge Server.” (18 March 2007). Pazienza, Maria Teresa, et. al. “XeOML: An XML-based extensible Ontology Mapping Language.” Paper presented at the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004) in Hiroshima, Japan, November _XeOML%20An%20XML-based%20extensible%20Ontology%20Mapping%20Language.pdf (6 February 2007).

22 Bibliography, continued Shreve, Gregory M. and Marcia Lei Zeng. “Integrating Resource Metadata and Domain Markup in an NSDL Collection.” In Proceedings of the International DCMI Metadata Conference and Workshop, Seattle, WA, 28 September - 2 October, (16 March 2007).http://www.siderean.com/dc2003/604_paper62.pdf Simperl, Elena Paslaru Bontas and Christoph Tempich. “Ontology Engineering: a Reality Check.” 5th International Conference on Ontologies, Databases, and Applications of Semantics, (16 March 2007).http://ontocom.ag-nbi.de/docs/odbase2006.pdf Smith, Terence R., Marcia L. Zeng, and the ADEPT project Team. “Building Semantic Tools for Concept- based Learning Spaces: Knowledge Bases of Strongly- Structured Models for Scientific Concepts in Advanced Digital Libraries.” Journal of Digital Information, 4:4, Art. 263, 28 January (16 March 2007).http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v04/i04/Smith/> Sourceforge. “Ontology MApping FRAmework (MAFRA) Toolkit.” Open Source Technology Group, 31 January (18 March 2007).http://mafra-toolkit.sourceforge.net Stuckenschmidt, Heiner, and Frank van Harmelen. Information Sharing on the Semantic Web. Berlin: Springer, Welty, Chris. “Ontology Maintenance Support: Text, Tools, and Theories.” Presentation at the 7th International Protégé Conference, Bethesda MD, (16 March 2007).http://protege.stanford.edu/conference/2004/slides/2.1_Welty_Ontology_Maintenance_Support_v3.pdf World Wide Web Consortium. “OWL Web Ontology Language Guide.” W3C Recommendation, February (26 March 2006).http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-guide/ World Wide Web Consortium. “RDF Primer: W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004.” (21 March 2007).http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/


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