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1 UML Models for DAML Ontologies OMG Agent SIG 12/11/00 Dr. Paul Kogut and Bill Holmes Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Lewis Hart - GRC International.

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Presentation on theme: "1 UML Models for DAML Ontologies OMG Agent SIG 12/11/00 Dr. Paul Kogut and Bill Holmes Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Lewis Hart - GRC International."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 UML Models for DAML Ontologies OMG Agent SIG 12/11/00 Dr. Paul Kogut and Bill Holmes Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Lewis Hart - GRC International

2 2 Roadmap Agents and OntologiesAgents and Ontologies DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML)DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) The DAML ProgramThe DAML Program The Origins of DAMLThe Origins of DAML UML and DAMLUML and DAML –projects –process example –mapping –mapping examples ConclusionsConclusions

3 3 Agents and Ontologies Domain models are used at run-timeDomain models are used at run-time –agents share a context for efficient communication: –messages declare an ontology –ontology = vocabulary, relations, operations, rules, constraints... –example ontology: fruit-market –ontology agent - allows application agents to query, retrieve and translate ontologies –example agent conversation: –(cfp :to i :from j :ontology fruit-market :content (sell plum 50)) –(propose :to j :from i :ontology fruit-market :content ((sell plum 50 ) (cost 200))) –(reject-proposal :to i :from j :ontology fruit-market :content (price-too-high))

4 4 Agents and Ontologies RDBMS knowledge base reasoning natural language processing learning ontology agent user interface information retrieval personal assistant agent business software broker agent other agents web pages DAML annotated

5 5 DARPA Agent Markup Language DAML will create the next major generation of Web/Internet technology...DAML will create the next major generation of Web/Internet technology... –The first generation, the Internet, created largely by DARPA, enabled disparate machines to exchange data. –The second generation, the World Wide Web, enabled a wide range of new applications on top of the growing Internet. The Web made a huge amount of information available, in human-readable form, allowing a revolution in new applications, environments, and b2c e-commerce. –The next generation of the net is an “agent-enabled” resource (the “Semantic Web”) which makes a huge amount of information available in machine-readable form creating a revolution in new applications, environments, and b2b e-commerce. … by enabling “agent” communication at a Web-wide scale. from Hendler - DAML briefing -

6 6 DAML Program Main DAML website - DAML website - Duration: August 2000 to Fall 2002Duration: August 2000 to Fall 2002 Approach:Approach: –MIT W3C semantic web concept –extend XML/RDF: represent ontologiesrepresent ontologies annotate web pages and other information with links to ontologiesannotate web pages and other information with links to ontologies

7 7 DAML Program 15 research teams and 1 integration team15 research teams and 1 integration team –industry, academia and World Wide Web Consortium –expertise in AI knowledge representation, logic and web technologies –cooperation with European Union IST Program - DAML language definitionDAML language definition DAML toolsDAML tools –ontology development and verification –web page annotation –agent services –ontology translation DAML trial applicationsDAML trial applications –Government: imagery analysis, DoD logistics, DoD simulation –Commercial: information retrieval, transportation, financial

8 8 The Origins of DAML: Web Technologies XMLXML –provides syntactic interoperability –depends on implicit semantic agreements Resource Description Framework (RDF)Resource Description Framework (RDF) –designed for representing metadata for web resources with XML syntax –triples: RDF SchemaRDF Schema –adds OO concepts: class and subclass For more information see more information see XML RDF RDFS DAML

9 9 The Origins of DAML: AI Technologies SHOE - Simple HTML Ontology ExtensionsSHOE - Simple HTML Ontology Extensions –defines ontologies and inference rules in superset of HTML –prototype for DAML ideas –http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/index.html OIL - Ontology Inference LayerOIL - Ontology Inference Layer –defines ontologies on top of XML and RDF –based on description logics research on tradeoffs between expressiveness and computational complexityresearch on tradeoffs between expressiveness and computational complexity –influenced the semantics of DAML –http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil/ DAML design issues:DAML design issues: –efficient reasoning is important –are traditional knowledge representation assumptions violated on the web? –should “web logic” be monotonic or nonmonotonic?

10 10 The Origins of DAML: Evolution DAML-ONT v1.2DAML-ONT v1.2 –declarative knowledge representation –specification and examples released October –extensive discussions found on: –formal semantics specification: DAML-ONT v2.0DAML-ONT v2.0 –expected early 2001 DAML-L (logic)DAML-L (logic) –rule representation and reasoning –draft expected early 2001

11 11 UML and DAML: Projects Projects investigating UML DAML issues:Projects investigating UML DAML issues: –UML-based Ontology Toolset (UBOT) UML/XMI tools for DAML ontology development, webpage annotation and formal consistency checkingUML/XMI tools for DAML ontology development, webpage annotation and formal consistency checking –Components for Ontology Driven Push (CODIP) DAML ontology development and fusion with Rose 2000DAML ontology development and fusion with Rose 2000 dissemination of DAML messages via channelsdissemination of DAML messages via channels –Stanford Database Group OntoAgents Layered Approach to Information Modeling and InteroperabilityLayered Approach to Information Modeling and Interoperability –http://www.interdataworking.com/converter/ Representing UML in RDFRepresenting UML in RDF –http://www-db.stanford.edu/~melnik/rdf/uml/

12 12 UML and DAML: Process Example Baseline ontology for businessBaseline ontology for business

13 13 UML and DAML: Process Example Extended ontology for e-commerceExtended ontology for e-commerce

14 14 UML and DAML: Process Example Translation to DAMLTranslation to DAML

15 15 UML and DAML: Process Example Graphical annotation:Graphical annotation: –"Trey Clever is the CEO of the B2B company acronym.com".

16 16 UML and DAML: Mapping A UML profile:A UML profile: –is a predefined set of stereotypes, taggedvalues, constraints and icons –tailors UML for a specific domain or process Draft UML profile for DAML:Draft UML profile for DAML: –primary goal - translate class diagrams into DAML ontologies assumption: purpose of model is to design a DAML ontologyassumption: purpose of model is to design a DAML ontology –secondary goal - translate DAML ontologies into class diagrams –future goal - translate legacy class diagrams into DAML –approach - use UML extensions sparingly –status - work in progress not all DAML concepts mapped to UMLnot all DAML concepts mapped to UML –for more information see:

17 17 UML and DAML: Ontologies This model shows dependencies between ontologies.This model shows dependencies between ontologies.

18 18 UML and DAML: Domain and Range Using explicit navigability and rolenamesUsing explicit navigability and rolenames –DAML property: age domain: Persondomain: Person range: Integerrange: Integer –DAML property: mother-parent domain: Persondomain: Person range: Womanrange: Woman

19 19 UML and DAML: Domain and Range Using name direction arrow and no rolenamesUsing name direction arrow and no rolenames –DAML property: age domain: Persondomain: Person range: Integerrange: Integer –DAML property: mother domain: Persondomain: Person range: Womanrange: Woman

20 20 UML and DAML: subPropertyOf For simple hierarchy model subPropertyOf as:For simple hierarchy model subPropertyOf as: –stereotyped dependency between 2 associations

21 21 UML and DAML: subPropertyOf For complex hierarchy model subPropertyOf as:For complex hierarchy model subPropertyOf as: –generalization between stereotyped classes

22 22 UML and DAML: Cardinality cardinalitymaxcardinality mincardinality UniquePropertyUnambiguousProperty

23 23 Conclusions Graphical modeling of DAML ontologies in UML appears to be a promising approach.Graphical modeling of DAML ontologies in UML appears to be a promising approach. Differences in the design goals and origins of UML and DAML complicate the mapping.Differences in the design goals and origins of UML and DAML complicate the mapping. We recommend that OMG initiate standards efforts related to DAML when the DAML definition stabilizes (~mid 2001):We recommend that OMG initiate standards efforts related to DAML when the DAML definition stabilizes (~mid 2001): –standard UML profile for DAML consistent with UML profile for agentsconsistent with UML profile for agents –each Domain Task Force should develop standard DAML ontologies


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