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CSE 341 Verilog HDL An Introduction. Hardware Specification Languages Verilog  Similar syntax to C  Commonly used in  Industry (USA & Japan) VHDL 

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Presentation on theme: "CSE 341 Verilog HDL An Introduction. Hardware Specification Languages Verilog  Similar syntax to C  Commonly used in  Industry (USA & Japan) VHDL "— Presentation transcript:

1 CSE 341 Verilog HDL An Introduction

2 Hardware Specification Languages Verilog  Similar syntax to C  Commonly used in  Industry (USA & Japan) VHDL  Similar syntax to ADA  Commonly used in  Government Contract Work  Academia  Europe

3 Structural vs. Behavioral Structural  Shows primitive components and how they are connected  Modules are defined as a collection of interconnected gates and other previously defined modules  Modules are built up to make more complex modules  The design describes the structure of the circuit Behavioral  Shows functional steps of how the outputs are computed  Abstract description of how the circuit works  Does not include any indication of structure (implementation) details  Useful early in design process  Allows designer to get a sense of circuit’s characteristics before embarking on design process  After functionality is well defined, structural design may follow  Synthesis Tools  Generate implementation based on the behavioral specification

4 Overview System is described as a set of modules consisting of:  Interface  Declares nets & registers which comprise the two (2) fundamental data types in Verilog Nets  Used to connect structures (eg. - gates)  Need to be driven Reg  Data storage element  Retain value until overwritten by another value  Don’t need to be driven  Description  Defines structure

5 Modules Instantiating modules can help make code easier to write, modify, read, and debug Examples  Carry Lookahead Adder  Partial Full Adder  Carry Lookahead Unit  Barrel Shifter  7-Segment Display Decoder Basic Module Format

6 Modules Structure module modulename(port list); parameters port declarations (input or output) wire declarations reg declarations submodule instantiations … text body … endmodule Instantiations  modulename instance_name(port list);

7 Datatypes Net  Wire Register  Reg  Static Storage Element

8 Parameters  Used to define constants in modules  Examples parameter and_delay=2, or_delay=1; and #and_delay (f,a,b);

9 Primitive Structural Modules Define the structure of the module  Form the module’s body Format  gate #n (output, inputs)  Note: The integral delay (#n ) may be neglected  If omitted, delay = 0 Gates  and  or  nand  not  xor

10 Identifiers Names given to hardware objects  Wires (busses)  Registers  Memories  Modules Alphanumeric May Include:  _  $ May NOT Start With:  Number  $

11 Numbers Syntax  Sized  Size’Format Number  Size Number of digits  Format (Base) h (Hexadecimal) d (Decimal)  Default o (Octal) b (Binary)  Number Number specified  Unsized  ’Format Number

12 Numbers Examples  4’b1011  8’hfe902a30  2’d37  Same as 37 (default)  4’h a729  ‘d  8’b 1101zzzz  16’h x

13 The Full Adder Consider a Full Adder

14 The Full Adder Basic Module module fulladder() ; wire w1, w2, w3, w4, s, cout; reg a, b, c; xor g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); --> Simulation <-- endmodule

15 Simulation The simulation is an event-driven, time- ordered depiction of the circuit’s behavior under the prescribed specifications. Structure initial begin Simulation end

16 Simulation Some Useful Simulation Commands  $monitor(“format”, variable list);  Displays the specified entities when the values change  Modelled after C’s printf  Extra commas add spaces in the output  Format %b  bit %d  decimal %h  hexadecimal  $display (“format”, variable list);  Similar to monitor, but displays variable list in the format specified whenever it is encountered

17 Simulation Some Useful Simulation Commands  $time  Keeps track of simulator’s time  Used to maintain current time by simulator  The simulation will display the time when an event occurs  Referenced by $time  Specification of Units ‘timescale units / least significant digit to be printed Example  ‘timescale 10 ns / 100 ps  Units of 10 ns are used, printing out to no more precision than 100 ps

18 Simulation Some Useful Simulation Commands  Integral Delay  #n  Delays action by n time units (as defined by the timescale) In other words…  n time units after the current time, the described event will take place  May also be used for setting module & gate delays Example will follow

19 Simulation A bit in the simulation may take one of four values:  1 (true)  0 (false)  X (unknown)  Z (High Impedance)

20 The Full Adder Basic Module module fulladder() ; wire w1, w2, w3, w4, s, cout; reg a, b, c; xor g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); initial begin $monitor($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); #10a=0; b=0; c=0; #10 a=1; #10 b=1; #10c=1; a=0; #10a=1; #10// Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); end endmodule

21 Simulation Timescale  Compiler Directive  Preceded by ` Note, this is not an apostrophe  `timescale reference_time_unit / time_precision

22 The Full Adder Basic Module `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder() ; wire w1, w2, w3, w4, s, cout; reg a, b, c; xor g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); initial begin $monitor($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); #10a=0; b=0; c=0; #10 a=1; #10 b=1; #10c=1; a=0; #10a=1; #10// Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); end endmodule

23 Simulation Other Common Directives  Define  Defines constants or macros  Structure `define name definition;  Example `define delay 1  Include  Allows for multiple source file use Not needed in Xilinx  Structure `include filename  Example `include multiplexors.v

24 Full Adder Functional Simulation Text Output # 0 a=x, b=x, c=x, s=x, cout=x # 10 a=0, b=0, c=0, s=0, cout=0 # 20 a=1, b=0, c=0, s=1, cout=0 # 30 a=1, b=1, c=0, s=0, cout=1 # 40 a=0, b=1, c=1, s=0, cout=1 # 50 a=1, b=1, c=1, s=1, cout=1 # 60 a=1, b=1, c=1, s=1, cout=1 Waveform

25 Full Adder Under Unit Delay Model Basic Module `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder() ; wire w1, w2, w3, w4, s, cout; reg a, b, c; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); initial begin $monitor($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); #10a=0; b=0; c=0; #10 a=1; #10 b=1; #10c=1; a=0; #10a=1; #10// Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); end endmodule

26 Full Adder Under Unit Delay Model Basic Module `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder() ; wire w1, w2, w3, w4, s, cout; reg a, b, c; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); initial begin $monitor($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); #10a=0; b=0; c=0; #10 a=1; #10 b=1; #10c=1; a=0; #10a=1; #10// Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,,,, "a=%b, b=%b, c=%b, s=%b, cout=%b",a,b,c,s,cout); end endmodule

27 Full Adder Unit Delay Simulation Text Output # 0 a=x, b=x, c=x, s=x, cout=x # 10 a=0, b=0, c=0, s=x, cout=x # 12 a=0, b=0, c=0, s=0, cout=0 # 20 a=1, b=0, c=0, s=0, cout=0 # 22 a=1, b=0, c=0, s=1, cout=0 # 30 a=1, b=1, c=0, s=1, cout=0 # 32 a=1, b=1, c=0, s=0, cout=1 # 40 a=0, b=1, c=1, s=0, cout=1 # 41 a=0, b=1, c=1, s=1, cout=1 # 42 a=0, b=1, c=1, s=0, cout=1 # 50 a=1, b=1, c=1, s=0, cout=1 # 52 a=1, b=1, c=1, s=1, cout=1 # 60 a=1, b=1, c=1, s=1, cout=1 Waveform

28 Comments Single Line Comments  Comment preceded by //  Example or #1 // OR gate with a delay of one time unit g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); Multiple Line Comments  Comment encapsulated by /* and */  Example and #1 g1(e, a, b); /* In this circuit, the output of the AND gate is an input to the OR gate */ or #1 g2(f, c, e);

29 Creating Ports Port names are known only inside the module Declarations  Input  Output  Bidirectional Full Adder Module

30 Creating Ports in the Full Adder `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder(a,b,c,s,cout); input a,b,c; output s,cout; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); endmodule

31 Creating Ports in the Full Adder `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder(a,b,c,s,cout); input a,b,c; output s,cout; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); endmodule

32 Instantiation Modules can be instantiated to complete a design 4-bit Ripple Carry Adder

33 Vectors Scalar  A single bit net or reg Vector  A multiple bit net or reg Advantage  Vectors make for a more natural way of scaling up a design Example  Consider the 4-bit adder  Using scalars: A3 A2 A1 A0 + B3 B2 B1 B0 + Cin = Cout S3 S2 S1 S0  Using vectors: A + B + Cin = Cout, S A[3:0] + B[3:0] + Cin = Cout, S[3:0]

34 Vectors Details  wire and reg may be declared as multibit  [expression_1 : expression_2]  Note:  Left expression is MSB, right is LSB  Expression must be constant, but may contain constants operators parameters

35 Vectors Concatenation  A bitvector can be created by concatenating scalar carriers and/or bitvectors  Example reg sum[3:0] reg cout [cout,sum] Replication  n{bitvector}  Replicates the bitvector n times.  Example 4{b’1001} results in

36 Creating the 4-bit Adder `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder(a,b,c,s,cout); input a,b,c; output s,cout; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); endmodule module fourBitAdder(x,y,s,cout,cin); input [3:0] x,y; output [3:0] s; input cin; output cout; wire c[3:0]; fulladder f0 (x[0],y[0],cin,s[0],c[0]); fulladder f1 (x[1],y[1],c[0],s[1],c[1]); fulladder f2 (x[2],y[2],c[1],s[2],c[2]); fulladder f3 (x[3],y[3],c[2],s[3],cout); endmodule

37 Creating the 4-bit Adder `timescale 1ns/1ns module fulladder(a,b,c,s,cout); input a,b,c; output s,cout; xor #1 g1(w1, a, b), g2(s, w1, c); and #1 g3(w2, c, b), g4(w3, c, a), g5(w4, a, b); or #1 g6(cout, w2, w3, w4); endmodule module fourBitAdder(x,y,s,cout,cin); input [3:0] x,y; output [3:0] s; input cin; output cout; wire [3:0] c; fulladder f0 (x[0],y[0],cin,s[0],c[0]); fulladder f1 (x[1],y[1],c[0],s[1],c[1]); fulladder f2 (x[2],y[2],c[1],s[2],c[2]); fulladder f3 (x[3],y[3],c[2],s[3],cout); endmodule

38 Creating a Testbench Provides for efficient testing of circuit Process  Create a module dedicated for testing  Instantiate  Test Module  Circuit to be Tested  Wire the modules together  Note that initial assignments in blocks must always be made to registers

39 Testbench for the 4-bit Adder `timescale 1ns/1ns module testbench(); wire [3:0] x,y,s; wire cin,cout; testAdder test (x,y,s,cout,cin); fourBitAdder adder (x,y,s,cout,cin); endmodule module testAdder(a,b,s,cout,cin); input [3:0] s; input cout; output [3:0] a,b; output cin; reg [3:0] a,b; reg cin; initial begin $monitor($time,,"a=%d, b=%d, c=%b, s=%d, cout=%b",a,b,cin,s,cout); $display($time,,"a=%d, b=%d, c=%b, s=%d, cout=%b",a,b,cin,s,cout); #20 a=2; b=3; cin=0; #20 a=1; b=7; cin=0; #20 // Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,,"a=%d, b=%d, c=%b, s=%d, cout=%b",a,b,cin,s,cout); end endmodule // Don’t forget to include the fourBitAdder and fulladder modules

40 4-bit Adder Unit Delay Simulation Text Output # 0 a= x, b= x, c=x, s= x, cout=x # 20 a= 2, b= 3, c=0, s= x, cout=x # 22 a= 2, b= 3, c=0, s= X, cout=0 # 23 a= 2, b= 3, c=0, s= 5, cout=0 # 40 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s= 5, cout=0 # 42 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s= 2, cout=0 # 43 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s=12, cout=0 # 45 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s= 0, cout=0 # 47 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s= 8, cout=0 # 60 a= 1, b= 7, c=0, s= 8, cout=0 Waveform

41 Icarus Verilog iverilog  Available on the CSE systems Using iverilog  Enter source code using any editor  Save using.v exention  Compile  iverilog -t vvp filename.v -o out_filename Note that neglecting to specify the output filename (-o out_filename), iverilog will output to a.out.  View Results  vpp out filename

42 Example Simulate the following circuit using Verilog HDL.

43 Example module eg_function(); reg a,b,c; wire f; ckt inst1(f,a,b,c); initial begin $monitor($time,"a =%b, b=%b, c=%b, f=%b",a,b,c,f); $display($time,"a =%b, b=%b, c=%b, f=%b",a,b,c,f); #0 a=0; b=0; c=0; #10 a=1; b=1; c=0; #10 a=1; b=1; c=1; #10// Required for iverilog to show final values $display($time,"a =%b, b=%b, c=%b, f=%b",a,b,c,f); end endmodule module ckt(f,a,b,c); parameter delay=1; output f; input a,b,c; wire x,y; and #delay (x,a,b); or #delay (y,b,c); xor #delay (f,x,y); endmodule


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