Presentation on theme: "Content-Based Image Retrieval Rong Jin. Content-based Image Retrieval Retrieval by text Label database images by text tags Image retrieval as text retrieval."— Presentation transcript:
Content-Based Image Retrieval Rong Jin
Content-based Image Retrieval Retrieval by text Label database images by text tags Image retrieval as text retrieval Find images for textual queries using standard text search engines
Image Labeling by Human Computing ESP game Collect annotations for web images via a game
Content-based Image Retrieval Retrieval based on visual content Represent images by their visual contents Each query is an image Search for images that have similar visual content as the query image
Content-based Image Retrieval Given a query image, try to find visually similar images from an image database Image Database Answer Query
CBIR Challenges: How to represent visual content of images What are “visual contents” ? Colors, shapes, textures, objects, or meta-data (e.g., tags) derived from images Which type of “visual content” should be used for representing image ? Difficult to understand the information needs of an user from a query image How to retrieve images efficiently Should avoid linear scan of the entire database
Image Representation Similar color distribution Similar texture pattern Similar shape/pattern Similar real content Degree of difficulty Histogram matching Texture analysis Image Segmentation, Pattern recognition Life-time goal :-)
Vector based Image Representation Represent an image by a vector of fixed number of elements Color histogram: discretize color space; count pixels for each discretized color bin Texture: Gabor filters texture features …
Vector based Image Representation Vq V V2 |V1 – Vq| < |V2 – Vq|> RGBRGB
Images with Similar Colors
Images with Similar Shapes
Images with Similar Content
Challenges in CBIR You get drunk, REALLY drunk Hit over the head Kidnapped to another city in a country on the other side of the world When you wake up, You try to figure out what city are you in, and what is going on That ’ s what it ’ s like to be a CBIR system!
Near Duplicate Image Retrieval Given a query image, identify gallery images with high visual similarity.
Appearance based Image Matching Parts-based image representation Parts (appearance) + shape (spatial relation) Parts: local features by interesting point operator Shape: graphical models or neighborhood relationship
Interesting Point Detection Local features have been shown to be effective for representing images They are image patterns which differ from their immediate neighborhood. They could be points, edges, small patches. We call local features key points or interesting points of an image
Interesting Point Detection An image example with key points detected by a corner detector.
Interesting Point Detection The detection of interesting point needs to be robust to various geometric transformations OriginalScaling+Rotation+TranslationProjection
Interesting Point Detection The detection of interesting point needs to be robust to imaging conditions, e.g. lighting, blurring.
Descriptor Representing each detected key point Take measurements from a region centered on a interesting point E.g., texture, shape, … Each descriptor is a vector with fixed length E.g. SIFT descriptor is a vector of 128 dimension
Descriptor The descriptor should also be robust under different image transformation. They should have similar descriptors
Image Representation Descriptors of the key points Original image Detected key points Bag-of-features representation: an example Each descriptor is 5 dimension
Retrieval How to measure similarity?
Retrieval Count number of matches !
Retrieval If the distance between two vectors is smaller than the threshold, we get one match
Retrieval Matched points: 1 Matched points: 5
Problems Computationally expensive Requiring linear scan of the entire data base Example: match a query image to a database of 1 million images 0.1 second for computing the match between two images Take more than one day to answer a single query
Bag-of-words Model Compare to the bag-of-words representation in text retrieval A document A collection of the words in the document An image A collection of the key points of the image What is the difference
Bag-of-words A document A collection of the words in the document An image A collection of the key points of the image What is the difference The same word appears in many documents No “same key point”, but “similar key point” appears in many images which have similar “visual content” Group “similar key point” in different images in to “visual words”
Bag-of-words Model b1b1 b2b2 b3b3 b4b4 b5b5 b6b6 b7b7 b8b8 … … … b1b1 b2b2 b3b3 b4b4 Group key points into visual words Represent images by histograms of visual words
Bag-of-words The “grouping” is usually done by clustering. Clustering the key points of all images into a number of cluster centers (e.g 100,000 clusters). Each cluster center is called a “visual word” The collection of all cluster centers is called “ visual vocabulary”
Retrieval by Bag-of-words Model Generate “visual vocabulary” Represent each key point by its nearest “visual word” Represent an image by “a bag of visual words” Text retrieval technique can be applied directly.
Project Build a system for near duplicate image retrieval A database with 10,000 images Construct bag-of-words models for each image (offline) Construct a bag-of-words model for a query image Retrieve first 10 visually most “similar” images from the database for the given query
Step 1: Dataset 10,000 color images under the folder ‘./img’ The key points of each image have already been extracted Key points of all images are saved in a single file ‘./feature/esp.feature’ Each line corresponds to a key point with 128 attributes Attributes in each line are separated by tabs
Step 1: Dataset To locate key points for individual images, two other files are needed: ‘./imglist.txt’: the order of images when saving their keypoints ‘./feature/esp.size’: the number of key points an image have.
Step 1: Dataset Example: Three images imgA, imgB, imgC. imgA : 2 key points; imgB: 3 key points; imgC: 2 key points. imglist.txt esp.size esp.feature imgB.jpg imgC.jpg imgA.jpg imgB-key point 1 imgB-key point 2 imgB-key point 3 imgC-key point 1 imgC-key point 2 imgA-key point 1 imgA-key point 2
Step 2: Key Point Quantization Represent each image by a bag of visual words: Construct the visual vocabulary Clustering all the key points into 10,000 clusters Each cluster center is a visual word Map each key point to a visual word Find the nearest cluster center for each key point (nearest neighbor search)
Step 2: Key Point Quantization Clustering 7 key points into 3 clusters The cluster centers are: cnt1, cnt2, cnt3 Each center is a visual word: w1, w2, w3 Find the nearest center to each key point imglist.txt esp.size esp.feature imgB.jpg imgC.jpg imgA.jpg imgB-key point 1 imgB-key point 2 imgB-key point 3 imgC-key point 1 imgC-key point 2 imgA-key point 1 imgA-key point 2
Step 2: Key Point Quantization imgA.jpg 1st key point w2 2nd key point w1 imgB.jpg 1st key point w3 2nd key point w3 3rd key point w2 imgC.jpg 1st key point w3 2nd key point w2 Bag-of-words Rep. imgA.jpg: w2 w1 imgB.jpg: w3 w3 w2 imgC.jpg: w3 w2
Step 2: Key Point Quantization We provide FLANN library for clustering and nearest neighbor search. For clustering, use flann_compute_cluster_centers( float* dataset, // your key points int rows, // number of key points int cols, // 128, dim of a key point int clusters, // number of clusters float* result, // cluster centers struct IndexParameters* index_params, struct FLANN
Step 2: Key Point Quantization For nearest neighbor search 1. Build index for the cluster centers flann_build_index( float* dataset, // your cluster centers int rows, int cols, float* speedup, struct IndexParameters* index_params, struct FLANNParameters* flann_params); 2. For each key point, search nearest cluster center flann_find_nearest_neighbors_index( FLANN_INDEX index_id, // your index above float* testset, // your key points int trows, int* result, int nn, int checks, struct FLANNParameters* flann_params);
Step 2: Key Point Quantization In this step, you need to save: the cluster centers to a file. You will use this later on for quantizing key points of query images bag-of-words representation of each image in “trec” format. imgB w3 w3 w2 imgA w2 w1 Bag-of-words Rep. imgA.jpg: w2 w1 imgB.jpg: w3 w3 w2 imgC.jpg: w3 w2 imgC w3 w2
Step 3: Build index using Lemur The same as what we did in the previous home work Use “KeyfileIncIndex” index No stemming No stop words
Step 4: Extract key points for a query Three sample query images under ‘./sample query/’ The query images are in the format of.pgm Extracting tool is under ‘./sift tool/’ For windows, use “siftW32.exe” For Linux, use “sift” Example: issue command Sift output.keypoints
Step 5: Generate a bag-of-words model for a query Map each key point of a given query to a visual word. Use the cluster center file generated in step 2 Build index for the cluster centers using flann_build_index() For each key point, search nearest cluster center using flann_find_nearest_neighbors_index()
Step 5: Generate a bag-of-words model for a query Write the bag-of-words model for a query image in the Lemur format. The mapped cluster ID for the 1st key point The mapped cluster ID for the 2nd key point … The mapped cluster ID for the 1st key point
Step 6: Image Retrieval by Lemur Use the Lemur command ‘RetEval’as: RetEval An example of parameter file /home/user1/myindex/myindex.key tfidf /home/user1/query/q1.query /home/user1/result/ret.result 1 10
Step 7: Graphical User Interface Build a GUI for the image retrieval system Browse the image database Select an image from the database to query the database and display the top 10 retrieved results Extract the bag-of-words representation of the query Write it into the file with the format specified in step7 Run the “RetEval” command for retrieval Load in the external query image, search the images in the database and display the top 10 retrieved results
Step 8: Evaluation Demo your system in the classes of the last week. We will provide a number of test query images Run your GUI, load in each test query image and display the first ten most similar images from the database