2 Using WCAG 2 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines SeeUsing WCAG 2 Web Content Accessibility GuidelinesWelcome![Please leave this here in case the first slide gets deleted:Please read the Instructions for the "Using WCAG 2" Presentation at---Note to presenters: Remember that some people may not be able to see the slides, for example, people who are blind or people listening to an audio-only recording of the presentation. Make sure that you say all of the information that is on each slide. See Advice for Presenters atNote to presenters: This presentation focuses on showing developers how to use WCAG 2.0. For other presentations, such as the Benefits of WCAG 2.0, seeDeveloped with material from the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)DRAFT Updated 17 August 2010
3 The WCAG 2.0 Technical Documents SeeThere are several WCAG 2.0 technical documents. We’ll go through each and show you where to go for which type of information.This presentation describes the different WCAG 2.0 documents, to help you know where to go for which type of information.Other presentations are available from the WAI Presentations page atFor background, an introduction to WCAG, and links to additional information, see Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview atimage description: all the documents together in a diagram
4 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Which WCAG docs for you?link to new pageThis presentation describes the different WCAG 2.0 documents, to help you know where to go for which type of information.Other presentations are available from the WAI Presentations page atFor background, an introduction to WCAG, and links to additional information, see Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview at
6 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ WCAG 2.0 W3C StandardSeeFor formal references(not an introduction not primary tool for developers)Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 itself is designed to be a stable, referenceable technical standard.Most people will use the supporting documents when developing Web content and Web tools, instead of the actual technical standards document.
7 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ WCAG 2.0 has 12 guidelines that are organized under 4 principles: perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust.For each guideline, there are testable success criteria.The success criteria are at three levels: A, AA, and AAA.image description:]
8 WCAG 2 at a Glance Principles (POUR) & Guidelines These are available atLet’s look at the guidelines briefly to get an idea of what is covered in WCAG 2.0…---Note to presenters: When possible, provide WCAG 2 at a Glance as a handout. Print version are available from[decorative image: coffee & cream pouring into a cup]
9 Principles - Perceivable Provide text alternatives for non-text content.Provide captions and alternatives for audio and video content.Make content adaptable; and make it available to assistive technologies.Use sufficient contrast to make things easy to see and hear.OperableUnderstandableRobust
10 Principles - Operable Perceivable Operable Make all functionality keyboard accessible.Give users enough time to read and use content.Do not use content that causes seizures.Help users navigate and find content.UnderstandableRobust
11 Principles - understandable PerceivableOperableUnderstandableMake text readable and understandable.Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.Help users avoid and correct mistakes.Robust
12 Principles - Robust Perceivable Operable Understandable Robust Maximize compatibility with current and future technologies.
13 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Guideline 2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.Success Criteria Three Flashes or Below Threshold Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A)Success Criteria Three Flashes Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period. (Level AAA)Here’s an example of the Success Criteria under guideline 2.3 on Seizures. See how they are testable statements, and are at different levels. You’ll mostly be focusing on the success critieria.(The underlined words link to definitions in the WCAG 2 Glossary.)
14 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Use Thisbasically it’s the WCAG 2 checklistHow to Meet WCAG 2.0: A customizable quick reference to WCAG 2.0 requirements (Success Criteria) and techniques at is a key resource for designers and developers using WCAG 2.0.It is essentially the WCAG 2.0 checklist.Let’s look at the other documents and then we’ll come back to the Quick Reference.[image description:How to Meet WCAG 2.0Customizable Quick Reference]
15 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG20_benefits/ Techniques documentSeeTechniques for WCAG 2.0: Techniques and Failures for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 at gives specific guidance for developers on how to develop accessible Web content. It provides general and technology-specific examples, including for HTML/XHTML, CSS, scripting, multimedia, and WAI-ARIA.The "sufficient techniques" are considered sufficient to meet the success criteria; however, it is not necessary to use these particular techniques. Techniques are “informative”, not part of the WCAG 2 standard, and you don’t have to use them to meet WCAG 2. You could develop other ways to meet WCAG 2.In addition to the 'sufficient techniques', there are also advisory techniques that go beyond WCAG 2.0's requirements. Authors are encouraged to apply all techniques that they are able to, including the advisory techniques, in order to best address the needs of the widest possible range of users.There are also common failures that show what to avoid.---[image description:Instructions for Developers Techniques for WCAG 2.0 (HTML, CSS, scripting, …)Browser and assistive technology support notesExamples, codeResourcesTest procedures]
16 Understanding document SeeUnderstanding WCAG 2.0: A guide to understanding and implementing Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 at has additional details for people who want to understand the guidelines and success criteria more thoroughly. It provide extensive guidance, including the intent of the guideline or success criterion; how it helps people with different disabilities, browser and assistive technology support notes, examples, and resources, such as tools to check color contrast.Note that the Understanding doc is not intended to be read cover to cover; instead, it's more like a reference manual. It’s the book on WCAG 2, from the WCAG Working Group itself.That's a lot of information. And that’s why the How to Meet Quick Reference is so useful.---[image description:Detailed Reference Understanding WCAG 2.0IntentBenefits to people with disabilitiesExamples scenariosResourcesTechniques]
17 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Use ThisNow you see why the How to Meet WCAG 2.0 Quick Reference is so useful!It includes all the WCAG 2.0 guidelines and success criteria. The success criteria are the testable statements that define how Web content meets (conforms to) WCAG 2.0.Under each success criteria it lists the techniques.image description: shows “How to Meet WCAG Customizable Quick Reference” contains Guidelines & Success Criteria from WCAG 2.0 and Techniques from the Techniques doc..
18 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG20_about How to Meet screen shotSeeSuccess Criteria[[++changed: see if need to update image. ++changed: Slide: slide title. Notes: deleted the Updated notes at the bottom. Changed “quick reference” in the image description.]]Let’s look more at that colour contrast success criteria. There's a short title: "Contrast (Minimum)" then the full text of the success criterion: “Text (and images of text) have a contrast ratio of at least 5 to 1 except if the text is pure decoration. Large-scale text or images of text can have a contrast ratio of 3 to 1”, and it includes the Level, which is Level AA for this one. Right after that is a link “Understanding Success Criterion 1.4.3”, so you can go directly to that topic in the Understanding document to get all that additional information if you want it.The first section is Sufficient Techniques. These are the techniques that the Working Group has defined as being sufficient to meet the success criteria – that is, if you do the sufficient techniques, you meet the success criteria. These techniques are short sentences, so you can skim them. If you want to know more, you just click the link and it goes to the Techniques where you get the explanations, examples, etc.The next section is Common Failures (which is new, we didn't have that with WCAG 1). They are examples of what not to do. For example, for this contrast one, a common failure is specifying a foreground colour without specifying a background colour, or vice versa.The final section is Advisory Techniques. These will usually enhance accessibility, but are not sufficient techniques for various reasons.(Remember that all techniques are informative, and you don’t have to use those particular techniques. They are there to define what you can do and to make it easy for you to know what will work, but there's flexibility to be able to define other techniques that will also meet the success criteria.)---[image description: Screen shot from How to Meet WCAG 2 at success criteria The success criteria text is labeled Success Criteria. There are circles around Sufficient Techniques, Common Failures, Advisory Techniques.]
20 The WCAG 2.0 Technical Documents SeeThe WCAG 2.0 documents are interlinked.image description: all the documents together in a diagram
21 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Links from WCAG 2.0SeeFor example: In WCAG 2.0,Links such as "How to Meet 1.1.1" go to the How to Meet WCAG 2.0 document, and jumps down to that section within the document.Links such as "Understanding 1.1.1" links go to an Understanding WCAG 2.0 topic page.You can get to the Contents list of all the Understanding topics from the [Contents] button at the top.You can get all the topics in one large Web page from the "single HTML version" link in the footer of each topic page.
22 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Linking to TechniquesSeeIn both How to Meet WCAG 2.0 and Understanding WCAG 2.0, there are lists of techniques that are links. These links go to a Techniques for WCAG 2.0 topic page.You can get to the Contents list of all the Techniques topics from the [Contents] button at the top.You can get all the topics in one large Web page from the "single HTML version" link in the footer of each topic page.
23 The WCAG 2.0 Technical Documents SeeWhile the WCAG 2.0 technical standard itself is at the center of the WCAG 2.0 information, most people will actually use the other documents to learn about WCAG and implement it.image description: all the documents together in a diagram
24 See www.w3.org/WAI/presentations/WCAG2_using/ Start HereWCAG OverviewRemember, the WCAG Overview is the place to start, and the place to send others who are want information on WCAG.It links all these documents we’ve talked about, as well as others like the WCAG 2 FAQ.For those who are familiar with WCAG 1.0, the Overview links to:How WCAG 2.0 Differs from WCAG 1.0Comparison of WCAG 1.0 Checkpoints to WCAG 2.0How to Update Your Web Site from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0Guidance on transitioning Web Accessibility Policies to WCAG 2.0It also has the WAI website navigation where you can get a whole bunch of related resources, such as:Evaluating Websites for AccessibilityDeveloping a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your OrganizationInvolving Users in Web Projects for Better, Easier Accessibility. . . and lots more WAI Resources (which are also listed at )