16 Annotating with Annozilla Contextually rich and expressive editorial metadata –Non-invasive –Pre-categorized –Of flexible usage Empowering but not distracting or overwhelming –Encourages sequential processing Best suited to static Web pages –Effort required to ensure relevance in wikis Stored locally or remotely Annotation goes mainstream!
18 Annotation Servers Local Server Remote Servers –W3C –DIY Linux Perllib MySQL –RDF datastore Apache –Annotations script –Access control –Access script –Algae script
20 J. Freemantle, OARS Presentation, December 2006 Annotations with Google Earth
21 Definitions “Annotation is the linking of a new commentary node to someone else's existing node. It is the essence of a collaborative hypertext.” –TBL, W3 Archive, c "... the addition of information to existing documents without changing the originals.” –Passin, Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web, 2004
22 Definitions “Annotations are comments, notes, explanations, or other types of external remarks that can be attached to a Web document or a selected part of the document. As they are external, it is possible to annotate any Web document independently, without needing to edit that document. From the technical point of view, annotations are usually seen as [editorial] metadata, as they give additional information about an existing piece of data.” –Amaya 9.52, W3C
27 RDF - Resource Description Framework A framework for describing resources on the web –Makes relationships explicit Provides a model for data, and a syntax so that independent parties can exchange and use it Designed to be read and understood by computers –Not designed for being displayed to people Written in XML Part of the W3C's Semantic Web Activity A W3C Recommendation –http://www.w3.org/RDF/ After
30 XPointer - XML Pointer Language An extension of XPath –XPath is used by XLink to locate remote link resources Relative addressing –Allows links to places with no anchors Flexible and robust –XPointer/XPath expressions often survive changes in the target document Can point to substrings in character data and to whole tree fragments Status –The key specification is a Working Draft in the W3C’s Recommendation Track
31 Dissecting an Annozilla Annotation (3)
‘describe’ ‘relate’ ‘compare’ ‘infer’ The stack of expressive power After
33 Summary Annotation use cases –University IT team’s static and wiki Web Annotations via Annozilla –Accessible client/server, standards-based implementation Annotations as external editorial metadata –Consistent with Web 2.0 social bookmarking plus some Google technologies –Inconsistent with office suites, wikis, formal ontologies Transform data into information into knowledge –Realizing the vision of a Semantic Web Web 3.0?
34 Future Work Support ongoing development of Annozilla –Go forth and annotate! Refactor definition of annotation –Develop single schema for annotation types/properties XPointer and OWL each have their own Semantically base annotations Automate annotation ??? Consider XPointer-based annotations as an option –Emerging common XML-based schema for Word processing software –Google Notebook Applications in other areas –Teaching and learning
35 Collaborators Keith Aldridge –Professor, York University Jim Freemantle –Independent Consultant Jerusha Lederman –Ph.D. Candidate, York University
38 Numbering of Nodes and Points
39 Representing GGP Data via ESML and RDF Lumb & Aldridge (2005, 2006)
40 Representing GGP Data via ESML and RDF with Annotation Lumb et al. (2007)