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Salmonella and Salmonellosis Maryanne E. Tocidlowski, DVM Houston Zoo, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Salmonella and Salmonellosis Maryanne E. Tocidlowski, DVM Houston Zoo, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Salmonella and Salmonellosis Maryanne E. Tocidlowski, DVM Houston Zoo, Inc

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3 What is it?   Family Enterobacteriaceae   Gram negative, rod bacteria, motile (most)   Newer classification:   2 Species: S. enterica, S. bongori   S. enterica - subspecies I, II, IIIa, IIIIb, IV, VI   By biochemical and antigenic reactions   Subspecies II, IIIa, IIIIb, IV, VI and S. bongori usually isolated from cold blooded animals and environment   Older classification:   3 Species: Cholerae-suis, typhi, enteritidis   Based on serologic and biochemical reactions   Many serotypes of S. enteritidis   Serotyping – 3 antigen structures   O (surface layer), H (flagella), V (capsule)

4 How does it work?   Penetration of the bacteria into intestinal wall, produces a cytotoxin, marked inflammatory response with enterotoxins, then fluid feces

5 Who is affected?   Anyone exposed – est 1.4 million cases annually, 400 deaths   Impaired immune systems   Children (< 5 yo) – 5x more likely to get infected   Infants   Elderly   All animals

6 What are the signs or symptoms?   Starts hours after exposure   Diarrhea   Fever   Abdominal cramping   Can last 4-7 days   Systemic infections   Occasionally long term illness   (Reiter’s syndrome)

7 Where do you get it from?   Worldwide occurrence   Different subspecies vary in their epidemiology   Lives in the intestine of humans and animals   Eating foods contaminated with salmonella   Of animal origin   Vegetables   Fecal-oral route   Estimated 6% of infections from contact with reptiles and amphibians

8 Diagnosis   Culture on selective media   Biochemical reactions   Serotyping   O antigen – outer layer of cell   H antigen – filament portion of flagellum   V antigen – capsular polysaccharide

9 Is there a treatment?   Usually not treated, self limiting   If systemic, can give antibiotics   Supportive oral fluids

10 Prevention of Salmonellosis   HANDWASHING !!   No reptiles/young birds in households with babies or children   Cook foods-No raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, meats, unpasteurized dairy products   Wash produce   Handwashing

11 Prevention part 2   Report cases to the local public health departments   Send isolates to City/County/State labs   Ban on selling small turtles (< 4 inches)   Treatment of municipal water supplies   Improvement in farm hygiene, slaughter plant practices, produce harvesting and packaging   Education of food handlers   Irradiation of meats

12 Websites      

13 Thanks


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