Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and Minerals: An In Depth Discussion Professor Steven Dion – Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Vitamins and Minerals: An In Depth Discussion Professor Steven Dion – Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure Studies
Vitamins An early 20th century discovery Organic - non caloric compounds that promote growth and reproduction and help maintain life and health. (13 main vits - A, D, E, K, B’s & C)
Kinds of Vitamins Fat Soluble & Water Soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble = A, D, E, K Water-soluble Vitamins = B complex & C
Properties of Fat-soluble vitamins Properties of Fat-soluble vitamins Don’t need to be ingested daily Years may elapse before showing fat soluble deficiency Liver stores vit A and D and K (only in little amounts) Vit E is stored throughout the body in fat stores Transported as part of the lipoproteins in the lymph fluid Travel to the liver to be dispersed to various body tissue By having a very low fat or fat free diet could cause fat-soluble vitamin insufficiency.
Hypervitaminosis The toxic levels of fat soluble vitamins A and D can cause toxic effects - however no concise research about E and K Too much “A” = possible birth defects in pregnant women - (children) = irritability, dry skin, swelling of bones, weight loss, and dry itchy skin, and (adults) = nausea, headache, drowsiness, loss of hair, diarrhea, loss of calcium in the bones as well as turn your skin yellowish and orange. Too much “D” - kidney damage
Functions of A “A” (an antioxidant) Active form is retinal (yellow) and carotene (orange) Functions / purposes include - Vision -covers the skin and tissue wrapped around our organs - some metabolic actions - too little of vit. A = night blindness and a build up of Keratin = clouding of protein over the eyes. Keratin - water insoluble protein found in our hair and nails. Beta carotene - (natural pro/ pre vit A derivative) similar to vit A effects - but it’s water soluble.
Functions of D D - body makes all it needs from the sunlight / ultra violet rays - Responsible / purpose - bone density - regulates the absorption and utilization of calcium - and the mineralization of bone - cell maturation - immune and disease cell production. Too little vit D can lead to osteoporosis - Take 400 International Units each day
Functions of E E – (an antioxidant) protects polyunsaturated fats from being destroyed from oxygen (termed oxidative stress) Prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes and cells = decrease cancer risks Sources include - oil rich seeds, nuts, germs, grains, and eggs High doses of E - topically - decrease scars and taken internally - decrease fiberistic breasts and act as a blood thinner, decreases menstrual symptoms. RDA = 30 International Units (IU) - but 400 - 800 IU are best for optimum health / disease prevention - but need to get this much from a natural vit E supplement - be sure to eat it with fat to ensure absorption.
Functions of K K - blood clotting - regulates blood calcium levels. - intestinal synthesis from gut flora and from leafy greens - deficiencies are rare - When you are put on blood thinners to decrease possibility of heart attacks - this decrease the synthesis of vit k - but if you have a diet high in vit k - you can undo the medications role to thin the blood.
Water-Soluble Vitamins The B complex vitamins and vitamin C - Act largely as coenzymes - combine with proteins to assist in the regulation of chemical reactions. They are easily dissolved in water. They are directly absorbed into the blood stream, where they travel freely. They are not stored in tissues to any great extent - excess is excreted
Vitamin C Vit C - regulates metabolic functioning and decreases oxidative stress and synthesis of connective tissue and vascular function Found mainly in plants Too much vit C can disturb gastrointestinal and urinary functions Vit C – (Balts Fry) the body becomes saturated at 120 - 220 milligrams of vit c - any excess spills over into the urine. - 60 milligrams (RDA) is to little.
B Vitamins Vit B complex - animal products Bacteria in gut makes some B vitamins Too much B 3 vitamins - cause liver dysfunction's Too much B 6 causes damage to peripheral nerves – numbness Alcohol destroys B 1 thiamin - which may lead to central nervous system problems associated with alcoholism. B12 - only found in animal foods - vegans need to be wary - leads to anemia and nerve damage.
Folic Acid Part of the B complex vitamins Sources- beans and orange juice - green leafy veg Purpose / function - decreased arterial disease / cancer and chronic illnesses. Take an additional 400 micrograms / day - 400 from pills - 400 from diet - Folic Acid - (foliage - green leafy veggies) - decreases chances of heart disease in adults because it decreases the homocystine levels in the blood. - which are linked to heart disease.
Antioxidants Help slow down the degeneration / breakdown of human cells - anti rusting vitamins = A, C, E and the vitamin A precursor - Beta carotene (one of the caroteniods found in dark green and orange vegetables) and selenium.
Vitamin Supplementation Suggested to take vitamin supplements because the RDA of vitamins are to prevent deficiencies- not in the promotion of healthy benefits of the vitamins. It only takes 200 milligrams of vitamin C to prevent Scurvy, (abnormal bone growth) but it takes 1000 milligrams / day to have beneficial health benefits.
Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid in physiological functions including - pH levels, assist in the release of hydrogen ions, through the acid in urine and carbon dioxide in our breath. Macro minerals - minerals that the body needs in fairly large amounts. – calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium Trace minerals - minerals that the body needs in only very small amounts. – iron, manganese, copper and iodine
Iron A trace mineral that regulates the amount of red blood cells and the amount of oxygen the blood holds. The loss or iron due to excessive bleeding will cause the individual to loose the ability to produce an ample amount of oxygen. Sources include = meat and animal products Anemia = fewer and smaller red blood cells = decreasing oxygen production and mobility Found in dried beans, veggies, cocoa Eat with vit. C - 100 milligrams with the foods Vegetarians - less iron = lower amounts of hemoglobin = lower chances of heart disease due to less clotting ability of the blood.
Calcium Nerve, kidney, muscular, cardiovascular function - body regulates it carefully - will draw on huge reservoir in the bones Effected by hormone levels and exercise High protein diets increase the excretion of calcium Smoking, alcohol wheat bran fructose (soft drinks), salt, caffeine, tobacco can interfere with calcium absorption. 1200 -1500 milligrams / day Too much has no health effects
Sodium Key in normal body functions - slight deviation in blood levels have drastic effects Taken in by table salt and excreted sweat Liking salt- is an addiction - extra salt is not need - not used - seen until agriculture - 9000 years ago Too much salt can cause us to retain fluid - which can create undo stress on cardiovascular concerns. Best way to cut down on sodium - cut out processed foods / snack foods coated in salt and increase potassium levels (mostly form fruits and veggies).
Selenium & Recommendations Selenium (an antioxidant) - seeds and nuts - brazil nuts - 200 micrograms / day. Additional Recommendations: 1. Eat more fruits and veggies 2. Take a supplement pill - synthetic is fine - try to get a natural vit E supplement 3. No need for Multi-day mineral - you get enough in the normal diet