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W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. WHGCEs Middle School Series - Session 7 Part.

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Presentation on theme: "W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. WHGCEs Middle School Series - Session 7 Part."— Presentation transcript:

1 W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. WHGCEs Middle School Series - Session 7 Part I Craig Benjamin Part One: China

2 W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. (p 60) Analyze classical civilizations and empires and the emergence of major world religions and large-scale empires. During this era, innovations and social, political, and economic changes occurred through emergence of classical civilizations in Africa and Eurasia. Africa and Eurasia moved in the direction of forming a single world of human interchange as a result of trade, empire building, and the diffusion of skills and ideas Six of the world’s major faiths and ethical systems emerged and classical civilizations established institutions, systems of thought, and cultural styles that would influence neighboring peoples and endure for centuries.

3 W3.1 Classical Traditions in Regions of the Eastern Hemisphere Analyze classical civilizations and empires and their lasting impact on institutions, political thought, structures, technology and art forms that grew in -China (Part I) -India (Part II) -Africa (Part III) -the Mediterranean basin (Greece Part IV; Rome Part V) -Southwest and Central Asia (Part VI)

4 7 – W3.1.1 – W – W3.1.1 Describe the characteristics that classical civilizations share -Institutions -cultural styles -systems of thought that influenced neighboring peoples and have endured for several centuries 7 – W3.1.2 Using historic and modern maps, locate three major empires of this era, describe their -geographic characteristics including physical features and climates -and propose a generalization about the relationship between geographic characteristics and the development of early empires.

5 7 – W3.1.3 – W – W3.1.3 Compare and contrast the defining characteristics of a -city-state -civilization -empire 7 – W3.1.4 Assess the importance of Greek ideas about democracy and citizenship in the development of Western political thought and institutions 7 – W3.1.5 Describe major achievements from Indian, Chinese, Mediterranean, African, and Southwest and Central Asian civilizations in the areas of -art, architecture and culture -science, technology and mathematics -political life and ideas -philosophy and ethical beliefs -military strategy

6 7 – W3.1.6 – W – W3.1.6 Use historic and modern maps to locate and describe trade networks among empires in the classical era. 7 – W3.1.7 Use a case study to describe how trade integrated cultures and influenced the economy within empires E.g. -Assyrian and Persian trade networks -or networks of Egypt and Nubia/Kush -or Phoenician and Greek networks

7 7 – W3.1.8 – W – W3.1.8 Describe the role of state authority, military power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery, in building and maintaining empires. E.g. -Han Empire -Mauryan Empire -Egypt -Greek city-states -and the Roman Empire. 7 – W3.1.9 Describe the significance of legal codes, belief systems, written languages and communications in the development of large regional empires. 7 – W Create a time line that illustrates the rise and fall of classical empires during the classical period.

8 Part One: The Feudal Age The Zhou Dynasty (1030 – 221 BCE) Part Two: The Emergence of China’s Major Philosophies in the Later Zhou Part Four: Unification of China Under the Qin ( BCE) Part Five: The Early and Later Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) This Lecture to Include

9 PART One: The Feudal Age The Zhou Dynasty ( BCE) Soon after 1030 BCE powerful Zhou tribe from western China overthrew the Shang, accusing them of not ruling fairly (‘Shang king a criminal fool given to wine, women, tyranny and greed’!) Zhou ruler claimed a mandate from heaven, believing that the cosmos was ruled by an impartial and all powerful Heaven who sits in judgment over human rulers This idea that rulers could only rule with divine approval became a dominant factor in future Chinese thought Zhou very powerful, so former Shang scribes all switched sides, and helped the Zhou establish a dynasty that would last for 900 years (longest in Chinese history)

10 Zhou Dynasty (Maximum Extent)

11 Zhou Feudal Politics Zhou domain was so large (both northern China and the Yangtze valley) they instituted a feudal system of government Kings gave authority to 50 or so powerful nobles who held their lands at the kings will, and were required to provide troops and fight for him Noble titles sometimes hereditary, other times had to be earned. Women and peasants had almost no standing Early Zhou kings were powerful rulers successful in war, but after two centuries a series of weak and complacent kings lessened central power of the throne Chinese cinema poster promoting another movie about the Zhou Dynasty

12 The Later Zhou: Feudalism By the 8th century vassals were largely independent; even court officials and scribes increased their power by obtaining lands and privileges In 771 all remnants of Zhou royal power disappeared when an alliance of disloyal groups destroyed the capital Part of the royal family escaped to the eastern capital of Loyang, where they ruled in a ceremonial capacity for another 500 years Chinese Symbol for the Zhou Dynasty

13 The ‘Era of Warring States’ ( ) Seven of the strong feudal princes consolidated their own power; each adopted the title ‘wang’ king. Warfare amongst these rival kings was incessant, particularly during the ‘Warring States’ Era

14 Zhou Economy Because of unstable political nature of the later Zhou, era one of the most culturally and technologically creative in Chinese history Chinese mastered the use of iron in the 6th Century BCE (centuries before Europe). The iron-tipped plow (drawn by an ox) increase agricultural output significantly, allowing for rapid population growth Zhou built canals for irrigation and transport; commerce expanded (with shells, silk, and ingots of gold and silver used as a medium of exchange) Middle class increasingly wealthy (richer artifacts found in middle class homes) But the ruling classes more and more aloof from the masses

15 Zhou Society With the weakening of central Zhou power after the 9th Century, rigid social hierarchy changed Land could be purchased by those with money, rather than just inherited by nobles, allowing the wealthy middle class to achieve elite status Peasants excluded from all this They were tied to villages where they worked as tenant farmers for landed gentry Most farmers worked plots so small they could not produce a crop surplus

16 Zhou Religion The religious practice of the Zhou empire reflected their hierarchical way of life Zhou kings believed that they were given a mandate from heaven to rule Kings prayed and sacrificed to Shang Di, the Lord on High, now called Dien (Heaven), and to their ancestors (pictured left) The lords of the territories prayed to the local nature gods and to the gods of agriculture in addition to their ancestors If any sacrifices or prayers were missed, great ill was predicted to fall on the territory or kingdom of the neglectful leader

17 Part Two: The Emergence of China’s Major Philosophies During the Later Zhou Warring States Era Instability of the later Zhou responsible for the emergence of rich streams of thought Between 6th and 3rd Cs great thinkers and philosophers profoundly considered the nature of society and human existence Philosophies they created on how humans should live have substantially shaped Chinese political culture ever since Subsequent Chinese rulers were often faced with the decision of whether to adopt Confucianism or Legalism as the guiding principal and philosophy of the state Confucius

18 Confucianism Life of Kong Fuzi First Chinese thinker to address the problem of political and social order, and also the most famous Chinese philosopher of all time, is Kong Fuzi – Kong the Sage ( BCE), known to the West as Confucius A member of the lower aristocracy of a minor state of Lu, and for many years sought an influential post in the Lu Court When none came his way he traveled China for about 10 years looking for employment in other courts Again he had no success, and in 484 he returned bitterly disappointed to Lu, where he died five years later Confucius

19 Eurasian-Wide ‘Age of the Philosophers’ Although he never obtained a powerful position, he did serve as educator and political advisor throughout his career, which gave him the opportunity to reflect deeply on life and society This was a highly philosophical era right across the Afro- Eurasian world zone: Confucius was a contemporary of the Buddha in India, Zoroaster in Persia, and the Socratic philosophers of Greece Like the Greeks, Confucius more interested in the essential duties and obligations of correct living, rather than religion E.g. to this day the Chinese have no real creation myth like the Old Testament So Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism are genuine philosophical schools, not religions

20 Disciples Confucius attracted many disciples throughout his life, who like him also aspired to political careers Confucius collected disciples from all different social classes Insisted that the title junzu (Princeling) should apply not just to sons of the aristocracy, but to ‘superior men’ who had achieved a high level of ethical and intellectual cultivation This was a revolutionary redefinition of the criterion for assigning status in Chinese society, and was an attempt to revitalize the old aristocracy Confucius and his disciples

21 Analects Confucius’ teachings were transmitted faithfully by his disciples However these have been endlessly reinterpreted in ever- changing intellectual and socials contexts ever since, so ‘pure’ Confucianism is sometimes hard to pin down The statements made by Confucius the teacher were collected in the Analects as a series of answers (‘sayings’) to questions posed by his disciples Extract from the Analects

22 Confucian Ideas Confucius’ thought fundamentally moral, ethical and political in character Also practical – did not deal with abstruse, hypothetical philosophical problems, or with religion Rather, in response to the violence and disunity of the times, Confucius attempted to justify prevailing social hierarchy by building it into an ethical framework, based on the stability of interpersonal relationships of officials That is, in an age when bureaucratic institutions were not fully developed, he argued that the best way to promote good government was to fill official positions with individuals who were well educated, conscientious and ethical He concentrated on the creation of junzi – superior individuals

23 Literary Study In the absence of established education system and core curriculum, he and his disciples studied works of poetry and history produced during the Zhou Dynasty They carefully examined these works because they provided insight into human nature But they were also practical in their aim of finding literary works that would be instructive to future administrators As a result of Confucius’ influence, Zhou literature became the core curriculum in traditional Chinese education for the next two thousand years These include the Book of Songs, the Book of History and the Book of Rites

24 Confucian Values: Ren Education only one part of preparation for an ideal official – the other was the possession of moral integrity, and the capacity for wise and fair judgments He emphasized several ethical qualities in particular One of these was ren, meaning kindness, benevolence, a sense of humanity Officials with ren were courteous, respectful, diligent and loyal He felt a sense of ren was urgently needed in the bureaucracies of his day

25 Confucian Values: Li and Xiao Li was a sense of propriety – officials had to behave in an appropriate fashion, treat all other humans with courtesy, and show due respect to their elders and superiors Xiao meant filial piety, reflecting the great significance of family in Chinese society Children obliged to respect their parents and other family elders, support them in their old age, and remember them and other ancestors after their deaths

26 The Junzi and Moral Leadership Confucius felt that individuals that possessed ren, li and xiao would gain influence in larger society These moral and self-controlled individuals would then lead others by example Only through enlightened leadership by ethical leaders was there any hope for the restoration of political and social order in fragmented late-Zhou China His goal was thus not only the creation of junzi for their own sake, but because they could bring order and stability to society

27 Hierarchical Society Confucius thus clearly believed in moral responsibility in the ruling classes, and a concern for the rights of others: ‘Never do to others what you would not like them to do to you’ But despite this ethical quality, Confucianism essentially justified a hierarchical society in which ‘The noble man understands what is right; the inferior man understands what is profitable’ However, the noble man (junzu) need not necessarily be an aristocrat, but superior in terms of education and morality Confucius

28 Later Disciples Confucius expressed his ideas in general terms, making it possible for later disciples to adapt it to their own times and problems This very flexibility explains the longevity of Confucianism and its continuing influence in China Two of the most important later disciples who reflect the flexibility of traditional Confucianism are Mencius and Xunzi

29 Mencius ( BCE) Mencius the most learned man of his age and a principal spokesman for the Confucian school Traveled widely throughout China during the later Warring States Era offering advice to rulers Felt human nature was basically good, and sought policies that would allow this to influence society Advocated government based on ren – benevolence and humanity Role of rulers was to levy light taxes, avoid wars, support education and encourage harmony and cooperation Was Mencius naively optimistic? Can these policies succeed in the real world where human interests, wills and ambitions constantly clash? acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu

30 Xunzi ( BCE) Xunzi was a man of immense learning who served as a government administrator This practical experience gave him a more realistic view of human nature than Mencius Believed humans selfishly pursued their own interests, whatever the cost to society, and considered strong social discipline the best way of bringing order to society Hence Xunzi emphasized li rather than ren Advocated the establishment of clear standards of conduct that set limits on the pursuit of individual interests, with strong punishment for those who neglected their obligations to larger society

31 Confucian Optimism and Activism Although harsher and more realistic, Xunzi (like Confucius and Mencius) believed it was possible to improve human beings and restore order to fragmented society Fundamental optimism thus a basic characteristic of Confucianism Explains high value they placed on education and public behavior, and for an activist intervention in public affairs Confucians actively sought government positions to solve political and social problems

32 Legalism Ultimately Confucianism was not able to solve the problems of the Warring States era At the end of the Warring States another body of thought emerged in China – Legalism, or the School of Law – which also sought stability in an age of turmoil, but by strengthening the power of the king Legalists argued for strict laws to achieve orderly society, believing people only acted virtuously when forced to by the state In the end it was legalism that brought order back to China Legalism not concerned with ethics or the place of humans in nature, but with the state, which they sought to strengthen and expand at all costs

33 Shang Yang Legalist doctrine emerged from the insights of men who were actively involved in Chinese political affairs during the late 4 th Century BCE Most notable was Shang Yang (c ) who was Chief Minister to the duke of the Qin state in western China His policies are found in a surviving text called The Book of Lord Shang which probably also includes contributions from other ministers Shang Yang was a clever and efficient administrator, but was despised and feared because of his power and ruthlessness Upon the death of his patron, Shang Yang was quickly executed – his body was mutilated and his family annihilated

34 Han Feizi Most systematic of all legalist theorists was Han Feizi (c BCE) – a student of the Confucian scholar Zunzi Han Feizi carefully studied Legalist ideas from all over China, and synthesized them into a collection of powerful and persuasive essays on statecraft Han Feizi also an advisor at the Qin Court, and was forced to commit suicide by his enemies who forced him to take poison Thus the Legalist state itself consumed the two foremost proponents of Legalist doctrine www3.la.psu.edu/textbooks

35 Legalist Doctrine: A World of Soldiers and Farmers Legalists reasoned that the foundations of a state’s strength were agriculture and the armed forces Sought to channel as many individuals as possible into farming or the military, while discouraging them from pursuing careers as merchants, entrepreneurs, scholars, educators, philosophers, poets or artists These lines of work did not advance the interests of the state

36 Legalists and the Law Legalists wanted to harness subjects’ energy by means of strict and clear laws – hence ‘Legalists’ Where Confucians relied on custom, education and ethics, legalists depended on laws Only way to persuade individuals to subordinate their interests to those of the state was through strictly enforced laws These laws clearly outlined expectations and provided severe punishments If people feared the consequences of committing petty crimes, they would be deterred from greater crimes For petty crimes punishment was thus severe – for disposing of trash in the street individuals would suffer amputation of hands or feet!

37 Collective Responsibility Also established the principle of collective responsibility before the law All members of a family or community were expected to observe other members closely Their duty was to forestall any illegal activity, and report any infractions If they failed in these collective responsibilities, all members of the family or community were liable to the same punishments as the actual violators

38 The Legacy of Legalism Legalist principles of government were not popular Over the centuries Chinese moral and political philosophers have had little praise for the Legalists Very few Chinese thinkers have openly associated themselves with the legalist school Yet Legalist doctrine lent itself easily to practical application Legalist principles of government quickly produced remarkable results for those who adopted them, particularly the Qin Ultimately it was Legalism – not Confucianism or Daoism – that put an end to the disunity and chaos of the Warring States Era and led to the unification of China

39 PART THREE: Unification of China Under the Qin ( BCE) It was the dynasties of the Qin (which gave its name to ‘China’) and their successors the Han that created first Chinese Empire The Qin were short- lived, but the Han ruled for 400 years, utterly transforming Chinese society The Qin rulers enlarged China by conquests as far south as the South China Sea and Vietnam

40 Qin Rise to Power The king of the Qin Dynasty, helped by a legalist Zhou Prime Minister, overthrew the powerless Zhou Dynasty in 256, and by 221 had united much of China Declared himself Shi Huang Di (First August Supreme Ruler) – an official title for China’s emperors that lasted until 1911 Qin Shi Huangdi

41 Qin Political Structure King weakened nobility by moving its leading members to the Qin capital at Xian; ordered the civilian population to surrender all weapons New legal code (proposed by the Legalists) regulated all aspects of society China was divided into 48 provinces, each under the control of administrative bureaucracies (not feudal lords)

42 Qin Social Reforms Private ownership of land by the peasants was allowed Chinese society transformed by freeing the peasants from serfdom, and allowing for creation of a merchant and military upper class Population was divided into 20 ranks, and the role of the bureaucracy strengthened

43 The Qin Economy Qin rule stimulated booming economy - began to use money for the first time Trade routes strengthened, cities expanded, regional specialization emerged Growth also stimulated by public works; standardization of the written language and currency; and building of the first Great Walls to keep the militarized nomads of China’s north out of the country New form of Chinese written language lasted until miles of highways, and thousands of miles of canals were also constructed (Roman roads were slightly shorter in total length - about 3,740 miles) The emperor is also credited with the construction of the Great Wall of China!

44 Qin Society As a legalist, Shi Huangdi suppressed Confucianism and burned any philosophical books that might be interpreted as anti-legalist New cultural elite consisted of state-appointed teachers who used state-approved texts based on Qin interpretation of history First Emperor used 500,000 laborers to construct his own massive tomb near Xian. To keep the location a secret, all artisans and laborers were buried alive at the tomb’s conclusion

45 Tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi - The Terracotta Warriors

46 End of the Qin Dynasty The First Emperor succeeded by his inept son in 210 BCE, who could not control the alienated nobility Rebel armies arose across China, leading to anarchy and the collapse of Qin authority Most formidable army was led by a peasant who had become a Qin general, Liubang Although the Qin Dynasty was short lived, empire it created ultimately lasted for 2000 years until 1912 (when China became a republic) – the longest-lived political entity in human history

47 Part Four: The Early and Later Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) 206 BCE Liubang defeated his rivals and established the Han Dynasty (named after the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze) Han history divided into two phases: Early Han (capital at Xian) lasted BCE: Later Han (capital at Loyang) lasted CE – a total of almost 400 years Chinese call themselves ‘Men of Han’ to this day Ancient Xian

48 Han Social and Political Reform Han succeeded where Qin failed because they were more moderate. Liubang reduced taxes and forced labor, established an excellent road system, and enlisted the support of Confucian intellectuals, replacing Qin legalist terror by reviving intellectual life Han created vast bureaucracies staffed by salaried administrators to rule the empire Men employed on the basis of an examination system based on knowledge of the Confucian classics This was a masterstroke because of the Confucian insistence on loyalty to the state The results of government exams were ‘published’

49 Wudi and the Pax Sinica (141-87) Han Empire reached its zenith under Emperor Wudi (‘Martial Emperor’) The emperor dispatched envoy Zhang Qian to travel deep into Central Asia and seek allies against the Xiongnu To finance imperial expansion he increased peasant taxes (but not those of the nobles) and also increased demands of military service and forced labor www2s.biglobe.ne

50 Zhang Qian and Han Expansion It was by seeking an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu that China became involved in the Silk Roads trade The Chinese commercial exchanges brought great profits to Chinese merchants (and their western counterparts) The Silk Roads were the most important exchange network of the ancient world, responsible for massive levels of cultural exchange depts.washington.edu/uwch/ silkroad/maps/maps.html

51 Wang Mang (8-23 CE) Wudi’s costly policies led to fiscal crisis and peasant revolt Wudi followed by succession of weaker emperors, and the Han were temporarily overthrown in 8 CE by a Confucian chief minister, Wang Mang Peasants struggled to pay their taxes, while the number of tax- free noble estates had increased, so Wang Mang abolished debt slavery and attempted to portion the land out to the peasants He also tried to stabilize prices by establishing government agencies to buy surplus commodities when prices fell, and sell them when scarcity forced prices to rise FDR later did something very similar (inspired by Wang Mang) during the ‘New deal’ in the 1930s Coins minted during the reign of Wang Mang

52 The Later Han ( CE) Wang Mang’s reformist program failed because bureaucracy was unequal to the task - he was killed by rebels in 23 CE Power of the nobles, and the lot of the peasants, was unaffected He was replaced by the Later Han Dynasty, which never reached the heights of the Early Han Numerous revolts by poverty-stricken peoples (including that by the ‘Yellow Turbans’ in 184) Eventually in 220 the throne was usurped by a warlord, leading to 350 years of disunity and turbulence (China’s ‘Middle Ages’?) Pottery heads ‘ the ‘Yellow turbans’

53 Han Thought, Art and Culture Han scholarship not original; mainly focused on interpreting the Zhou classics Wudi established an imperial university in 124 BCE, based on Confucianism (official state philosophy) Han created the world’s first dictionary - the Shuo Wen (Word’s Explained) - listed the meaning and pronunciation of over 9000 characters Han art highly creative, particularly its sculpture of high spirited Central Asian horses Exert from an early edition of the Shuo Wen

54 Han Art Flying Horse, Gansu Province Terracotta Models

55 Han Technology and Science Chinese technological innovation resulted in inventions like: seismograph water mill for grinding grain piston bellows for smelting iron horse collar for plowing wheelbarrow Han scientists recognized sunspots and accurately determined the length of the calendar year Han Wheelbarrow

56 Ban Zhao Ban Zhao ( CE) the only women ever chosen in Chinese history to be court historian - she established the concept of the ‘ideal woman’ She listed four womanly qualifications – womanly virtue, words, bearing and work – and insisted on chastity, modesty and self- control, as well as hygiene This profoundly influenced Chinese, Japanese and Korean woman for the next 2000 years Chinese Woman – Ming Dynasty

57 The Ideal Woman? Ban Zhao accepted that men were superior, and that women should acquiesce to their desires But she also argued for equal educational opportunities, because ideals of ‘right living’ could only be passed down through the generations by education China Japan

58 Han China and Foreign Trade Han resented having to trade with the ‘barbarians’ of the West, but recognized that this would increase the wealth and technological skill of China They exported mainly silk, and received horses and certain other material goods in return The involvement of China with the west through Central Asia increased both Chinese exposure to foreign goods and ideas, and brought China to the attention of the Parthians and even the Romans The Romans sent an envoy to China during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, who traveled by sea to the Han court

59 Conclusion Shang succeeded by long-lasting Zhou, which established Chinese self perception of a united people sharing a common destiny Under Qin and Han, China was unified and expanded, bringing China into contact with the rest of the Afro- Eurasian world zone for the first time During the Silk Roads ‘Era’ all of Afro-Eurasia united into a single world-system – the forerunner to globalization The conception of empire, unity and philosophy established during this period has defined the Chinese national character up to the present day


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