How does Hail Form? Strong updrafts of warm air and down- drafts of cold air are in a thunderstorm. If a water droplet is picked up by the updrafts...it can be carried well above the freezing level. With temperatures below 32°F...our water droplet freezes. As the frozen droplet begins to fall...carried by cold downdrafts...it may thaw as it moves into warmer air toward the bottom of the thunderstorm But...it may also get picked up again by another updraft...carrying it back into very cold air and re-freezing it. With each trip above and below the freezing level our frozen droplet adds another layer of ice. Finally...our frozen water droplet...with many layers of ice - much like the rings in a tree...falls to the ground - as hail!
How Lightning Forms The connection is made and the protons rush up to meet the electrons. It is at that point that we see lightning and hear thunder. A bolt of lightning heats the air along its path causing it to expand rapidly. Thunder is the sound caused by rapidly expanding air.
Are Winds Faster In the Strongest Hurricane or In the Strongest Tornado? Are Winds Faster In the Strongest Hurricane or In the Strongest Tornado?
Fujita Tornado Damage Scale Scale Wind Estimate (MPH) Typical Damage F0 < 73 Light – Some damage to chimneys, branches broken, signs damaged. F173-112 Moderate – Peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned. F2113-157 Considerable – Roofs torn off frame houses, mobile homes demolished, large trees snapped F3158-206 Severe – Roofs and some walls torn off well constructed homes, trains overturned F4207-260 Devastating – Well-constructed homes leveled; cars thrown and large missiles generated F5261-318 Incredible – Strong frame houses leveled off foundation and swept away, trees debarked
How Do Hurricanes Form? 3. Having lost most of its heat and energy, the air is now expelled outward away from the center of the storm in the cooler hurricane outflow at high levels. In mature hurricanes, an eye forms in the center. Here, the air is descending and the region is generally cloud-free. 2. The warm, moist air rises in thunderstorms surrounding the eye, supplying the fuel that helps strengthen the storm and intensify the winds. 1. As air rushes into the hurricane’s low pressure center, the air picks up heat and moisture (fuel) from the warm ocean surface. H H L
What causes the winds to rotate around a hurricane? H HH H L The Coriolis Effect:
Wind Damage examples A 1x4 board of wood was pierced through a palm tree by Hurricane Andrew’s winds in August, 1992. A mobile home park near Miami, FL was completely destroyed by Hurricane Andrew in August, 1992. An historic home along the Gulf Coast before and after the passage of Category 5 Hurricane Camille in August, 1969.
How to Become A Meteorologist Take an interest in math and physics. Take an interest in math and physics. Pursue higher education and internships Pursue higher education and internships Become a weather watcher for your local TV station Become a weather watcher for your local TV station Visit your local weather service office Visit your local weather service office Get familiar with weather forecasting tools: i.e. satellite and radar images Get familiar with weather forecasting tools: i.e. satellite and radar images Observe your surroundings!!!! Observe your surroundings!!!!