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Weather SCOTT HANDEL National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Photo: Courtesy NOAA.

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Presentation on theme: "Weather SCOTT HANDEL National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Photo: Courtesy NOAA."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Weather SCOTT HANDEL National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Photo: Courtesy NOAA

3 Why Become A Meteorologist? Weather Affects Everyone! Being Able to Predict the Weather Saves Lives!!!

4 Outline Clouds Thunderstorms Hail/Lightning Tornadoes Hurricanes Tsunamis (Time Permitting)

5 Types of Clouds

6 Name That Cloud

7 Cumulus

8 Name That Cloud

9 Stratus

10 Name That Cloud

11 Cirrus

12 Name That Cloud

13 Stratus (Fog)

14 Name That Cloud

15 Cumulonimbus

16 Name That Cloud Outside of Your Window

17 Thunderstorm Formation

18 How do Clouds Form?

19 Hail

20 How does Hail Form? Strong updrafts of warm air and down- drafts of cold air are in a thunderstorm. If a water droplet is picked up by the updrafts...it can be carried well above the freezing level. With temperatures below 32°F...our water droplet freezes. As the frozen droplet begins to fall...carried by cold downdrafts...it may thaw as it moves into warmer air toward the bottom of the thunderstorm But...it may also get picked up again by another updraft...carrying it back into very cold air and re-freezing it. With each trip above and below the freezing level our frozen droplet adds another layer of ice. Finally...our frozen water droplet...with many layers of ice - much like the rings in a tree...falls to the ground - as hail!

21 What can hail do?

22 Lightning

23 How Lightning Forms The connection is made and the protons rush up to meet the electrons. It is at that point that we see lightning and hear thunder. A bolt of lightning heats the air along its path causing it to expand rapidly. Thunder is the sound caused by rapidly expanding air.

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26 Tornadoes What is a tornado? "a violently rotating column of air, pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud."

27 WHERE DO TORNADOES FORM?

28 WHY DO TORNADOES LIKE THE CENTRAL U.S.? WHY DO TORNADOES LIKE THE CENTRAL U.S.?

29 HOW DO TORNADOES FORM?

30 Are Winds Faster In the Strongest Hurricane or In the Strongest Tornado? Are Winds Faster In the Strongest Hurricane or In the Strongest Tornado?

31 Fujita Tornado Damage Scale Scale Wind Estimate (MPH) Typical Damage F0 < 73 Light – Some damage to chimneys, branches broken, signs damaged. F Moderate – Peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned. F Considerable – Roofs torn off frame houses, mobile homes demolished, large trees snapped F Severe – Roofs and some walls torn off well constructed homes, trains overturned F Devastating – Well-constructed homes leveled; cars thrown and large missiles generated F Incredible – Strong frame houses leveled off foundation and swept away, trees debarked

32 F0 Damage

33 F1 Damage

34 F2 Damage

35 F3 Damage

36 F4 Damage

37 F5 Damage

38 Tornado Embeds

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41 Rate the Tornado

42 F2

43 Rate the Tornado

44 F4

45 Rate the Tornado

46 F1

47 Rate the Tornado

48 F2

49 Rate the Tornado

50 F4

51 Rate the Tornado

52 F3

53 Rate the Tornado

54 F5

55 Rate the Tornado

56 F2

57 Rate the Tornado

58 F2

59 HURRICANES! …An overview of tropical cyclones Princeton University Quest Science Workshop July, 2007

60 Where do hurricanes form?

61 When do hurricanes form?

62 How Do Hurricanes Form? 3. Having lost most of its heat and energy, the air is now expelled outward away from the center of the storm in the cooler hurricane outflow at high levels. In mature hurricanes, an eye forms in the center. Here, the air is descending and the region is generally cloud-free. 2. The warm, moist air rises in thunderstorms surrounding the eye, supplying the fuel that helps strengthen the storm and intensify the winds. 1. As air rushes into the hurricane’s low pressure center, the air picks up heat and moisture (fuel) from the warm ocean surface. H H L

63 What causes the winds to rotate around a hurricane? H HH H L The Coriolis Effect:

64 Saffir Simpson Scale

65 Wind Damage examples A 1x4 board of wood was pierced through a palm tree by Hurricane Andrew’s winds in August, A mobile home park near Miami, FL was completely destroyed by Hurricane Andrew in August, An historic home along the Gulf Coast before and after the passage of Category 5 Hurricane Camille in August, 1969.

66 Storm Surge

67 Hurricane Katrina (2005)

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71 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Bellport, New York (Lucas Jackson/Reuters)

72 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Queens, New York (Keith Bedford/Reuters)

73 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Belington, West Virginia (Robert Ray/AP)

74 Hurricane Katrina (2005)

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76 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Tuckerton, New Jersey (US Coast Guard/Getty Images)

77 Hurricane Sandy (2012) New York City (Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

78 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Hoboken, New Jersey (Charles Sykes/AP)

79 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (Desmond Boylan/Reuters)

80 Hurricane Sandy (2012) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Ricardo Rojas/Reuters

81 Looking at the Current Weather Radar Image

82 Looking at the Current Weather Satellite Image

83 Our Forecast Arlington, VA

84 How to Become A Meteorologist Take an interest in math and physics. Take an interest in math and physics. Pursue higher education and internships Pursue higher education and internships Become a weather watcher for your local TV station Become a weather watcher for your local TV station Visit your local weather service office Visit your local weather service office Get familiar with weather forecasting tools: i.e. satellite and radar images Get familiar with weather forecasting tools: i.e. satellite and radar images Observe your surroundings!!!! Observe your surroundings!!!!

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