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SIX METERS THE MAGIC BAND. Amateur Privileges 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz All Amateurs except Novices: All Amateurs except Novices:

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Presentation on theme: "SIX METERS THE MAGIC BAND. Amateur Privileges 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz All Amateurs except Novices: All Amateurs except Novices:"— Presentation transcript:

1 SIX METERS THE MAGIC BAND

2 Amateur Privileges 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz 6 Meters 50.0 to 54.0 MHz All Amateurs except Novices: All Amateurs except Novices: MHz: CW Only MHz: CW Only MHz: CW, Phone, Image, MCW, RTTY/Data MHz: CW, Phone, Image, MCW, RTTY/Data

3 Six Meter Band Plan CW CW Beacon Sub band Beacon Sub band SSB, CW SSB, CW DX Window DX Window SSB calling SSB calling All modes All modes Non voice communications Non voice communications Digital (packet) calling Digital (packet) calling Remote control (20-kHz channels) Remote control (20-kHz channels) Pacific DX window Pacific DX window – Repeater inputs – Repeater inputs – Repeater outputs -500kHz Split – Repeater outputs -500kHz Split

4 Six Meter Band Plan Digital repeater outputs Digital repeater outputs Digital repeater inputs Digital repeater inputs 52.02, FM simplex 52.02, FM simplex 52.2 Test Pair (input) 52.2 Test Pair (input) Primary FM simplex Primary FM simplex Secondary FM simplex Secondary FM simplex 52.7 Test Pair (output) 52.7 Test Pair (output) 53.0 Remote base FM simplex 53.0 Remote base FM simplex Simplex Simplex 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 53.4 Radio remote control 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 53.4 Radio remote control 53.5, 53.6, 53.7, 53.8 Radio remote control 53.5, 53.6, 53.7, 53.8 Radio remote control 53.52, 53.9 Simplex 53.52, 53.9 Simplex

5 Propagation Modes – 6 Meters Line-of-Sight Line-of-Sight F2 layer F2 layer Sporadic E – Single, Mult-Hop, Cloud To Cloud Sporadic E – Single, Mult-Hop, Cloud To Cloud Aurora Aurora Trans-Equatorial Propagation Trans-Equatorial Propagation Tropospheric Bending (Ducting) Tropospheric Bending (Ducting) Troposcatter Troposcatter Ionoscatter. Ionoscatter. Meteor scatter Meteor scatter Rain, lightning, ice pellet, aircraft, Scatter Rain, lightning, ice pellet, aircraft, Scatter FAI (E-layer field-aligned irregularities) FAI (E-layer field-aligned irregularities) TE (transequatorial field-aligned irregularities) TE (transequatorial field-aligned irregularities) Moon bounce (EME). Moon bounce (EME).

6 Line Of Sight Operation Line of sight (LOS) distance is dependant on the height of the antennas, antenna gain and directivity, transmitter power, and noise figure of the receivers. Line of sight (LOS) distance is dependant on the height of the antennas, antenna gain and directivity, transmitter power, and noise figure of the receivers. Sometimes called the optical distance, LOS is about 30 to 100 miles depending on the fore mentioned items. Sometimes called the optical distance, LOS is about 30 to 100 miles depending on the fore mentioned items.

7 F2 Propagation This is the other biggie for six meter operators but is only experienced at the solar cycle maximums (11 year cycles). It is the most common long distance propagation mode at HF and can also result in some tremendous DX openings on six meters. Hops are typically over 2000 miles in range. This is the other biggie for six meter operators but is only experienced at the solar cycle maximums (11 year cycles). It is the most common long distance propagation mode at HF and can also result in some tremendous DX openings on six meters. Hops are typically over 2000 miles in range. Over the years, observations have shown that for the higher latitudes, with conditions of very high MUF, the best months for 6M F2 skip centers around December. Over the years, observations have shown that for the higher latitudes, with conditions of very high MUF, the best months for 6M F2 skip centers around December.

8 Sporadic-E Ionization Sporadic E patches occur ~ 60 to 70 miles above the earth, at about the same height as the regular E layer. Sporadic E patches occur ~ 60 to 70 miles above the earth, at about the same height as the regular E layer. Cover a small geographical region, approximately 6 to 100 miles in diameter. Can be fast moving. Cover a small geographical region, approximately 6 to 100 miles in diameter. Can be fast moving. Random relatively short in duration, dissipating within a few hours. Random relatively short in duration, dissipating within a few hours. Causes not fully known. Occurs more often during the hours of daylight, ultra-violet radiation might play some role in its formation. Causes not fully known. Occurs more often during the hours of daylight, ultra-violet radiation might play some role in its formation. Some theories suggest that ionization might be caused by wind shear forces associated with rapid wind movements in the ionosphere. Some theories suggest that ionization might be caused by wind shear forces associated with rapid wind movements in the ionosphere.

9 Sporadic-E Seasons

10 Sporadic-E Variations

11 SIX METER PROPAGATION MODES ModeTimesEquipmentRange Line of sight Any time 10W and small antenna 0-30 miles Sporadic E Sporadic but typical seasonal times 10W and small antenna 600 to -1,500 miles single hop; miles double hop or multi hop F2 Depends on SFI, A and K solar indexes 10W and small antenna at max sunspots up to 10,000 miles AuroraSporadic W and a beam miles

12 SIX METER PROPAGATION MODES Meteor scatter WSJT, FSK441 JT43. Any time, but especially during the seasonal meteor showers W and a beam miles, longer during meteor showers Ionoscatter Any time 500+ W and 12dB+ beam 600 to 1200 miles EME Dependent on moon transit times 1+ kW 18 dB beam Up to 10,000 miles TROPOSPHERIC BENDING Temperature inversions 10W and small antenna 2954 miles or 4754 km....a new world record on 2M

13 Grid Squares The Maidenhead grid-square system, formalized at a VHF meeting in Britain in 1980 and adopted world-wide by the International Amateur Radio Union in 1985, is almost universally used as a locator system by VHF, UHF and microwave operators The Maidenhead grid-square system, formalized at a VHF meeting in Britain in 1980 and adopted world-wide by the International Amateur Radio Union in 1985, is almost universally used as a locator system by VHF, UHF and microwave operators

14 More On Grid Squares An instrument of the Maidenhead Locator System (named after the town outside London where it was first conceived by a meeting of European VHF managers in 1980), a grid square measures 1° latitude by 2° longitude and measures approximately 70 × 100 miles in the continental US. A grid square is indicated by two letters (the field) and two numbers (the square), as in FN31, the grid square within which W1AW, ARRL's Maxim Memorial Station, resides. An instrument of the Maidenhead Locator System (named after the town outside London where it was first conceived by a meeting of European VHF managers in 1980), a grid square measures 1° latitude by 2° longitude and measures approximately 70 × 100 miles in the continental US. A grid square is indicated by two letters (the field) and two numbers (the square), as in FN31, the grid square within which W1AW, ARRL's Maxim Memorial Station, resides. Each subsquare is designated by the addition of two letters after the grid square, as FN44IG. These more precise locators are used as part of the exchange in the 10-GHz contest. They measure 2.5 minutes latitude by 5 minutes longitude, roughly corresponding to 3 × 4 miles in the continental US. Each subsquare is designated by the addition of two letters after the grid square, as FN44IG. These more precise locators are used as part of the exchange in the 10-GHz contest. They measure 2.5 minutes latitude by 5 minutes longitude, roughly corresponding to 3 × 4 miles in the continental US.

15 When Do We Have Propagation Monitor the lower TV channels (not cable). Indications are bars and interference patterns and even a complete take over of the channel by a station hundreds of miles away. Monitor the lower TV channels (not cable). Indications are bars and interference patterns and even a complete take over of the channel by a station hundreds of miles away. Check the beacons to MHz Check the beacons to MHz Check the DX packet clusters Check the DX packet clusters Monitor MHz Monitor MHz Check the Propagation and Aurora reports. High sun activity may signal openings. Check the Propagation and Aurora reports. High sun activity may signal openings.

16 Six Meter Beacons

17 Six Meter Equipment Antennas can be small – 4.5 feet for a quarter wave. Antennas can be small – 4.5 feet for a quarter wave. Power is no way as critical on 6m as HF. 25 Watts will do fine if you have propagation Power is no way as critical on 6m as HF. 25 Watts will do fine if you have propagation Lots of multi band rigs available – IC- 706, FT-100D, Kenwood TS-2000, TS- 480 Series Lots of multi band rigs available – IC- 706, FT-100D, Kenwood TS-2000, TS- 480 Series

18 Prefixes A (AA-AL), e.g., AC6V, AD6VI K (KA-KZ), e.g., KM6MW, K6GO, KM6XA N (NA-NZ), e.g., N6KI, NN6X, NN3V W (WA-WZ), e.g., W6AM, W6ASP A (AA-AL), e.g., AC6V, AD6VI K (KA-KZ), e.g., KM6MW, K6GO, KM6XA N (NA-NZ), e.g., N6KI, NN6X, NN3V W (WA-WZ), e.g., W6AM, W6ASP KL, AL – Alaska KH6, AH6 - Hawaii KL, AL – Alaska KH6, AH6 - Hawaii VAA-VGZ Canada (Also CF-CK, CY-CZ, VO, VX-VY, XJ-XO) VAA-VGZ Canada (Also CF-CK, CY-CZ, VO, VX-VY, XJ-XO) XAA-XIZ Mexico (Also 4A-4C, 6D-6J) XAA-XIZ Mexico (Also 4A-4C, 6D-6J) 335 DX Entities on ARRL DXCC List 335 DX Entities on ARRL DXCC List

19 Awards WAS 48 plus Alaska and Hawaii WAS 48 plus Alaska and Hawaii VUCC – Work 100 Grid Squares VUCC – Work 100 Grid Squares DXCC DXCC Six Meter Clubs offer awards Six Meter Clubs offer awards SMIRK SMIRK Worked all District SIX’es Worked all District SIX’es

20 Working The Six Meter Band Check The Packet Clusters Check The Packet Clusters Check the beacon sub band Check the beacon sub band Tune receiver to MHz Tune receiver to MHz Lightly squelch the receiver to stop noise Lightly squelch the receiver to stop noise If nothing heard on , tune above and below If nothing heard on , tune above and below Occasionally call CQ on giving your QTH and Grid Square Occasionally call CQ on giving your QTH and Grid Square Read a book surf the web, yak on 2M, the band can be dead for long periods of time and magically spring to life. Read a book surf the web, yak on 2M, the band can be dead for long periods of time and magically spring to life.

21 Working The Six Meter Band When you make a contact – give your call, signal report, grid square, and name. When you make a contact – give your call, signal report, grid square, and name. Log the contact, someone can ask for a QSL, years after the fact. Log the contact, someone can ask for a QSL, years after the fact. Quickly turn QSO back to the other station to get these essentials, propagation can quickly change on 6M. Quickly turn QSO back to the other station to get these essentials, propagation can quickly change on 6M. Ask and give QSL info i.e.; QSL NEVER, QSL Mutual, QSL SASE. Ask and give QSL info i.e.; QSL NEVER, QSL Mutual, QSL SASE. Carry on with the QSO if mutual. Carry on with the QSO if mutual.

22 Six Meter Signal Reports Given in the RST System e.g., 59(9) + your Grid Square e.g., DM13 Given in the RST System e.g., 59(9) + your Grid Square e.g., DM13

23 Logging Date and Time (UTC) Date and Time (UTC) Frequency or Band Frequency or Band Mode Mode Time Off (UTC) Time Off (UTC) Reports – sent and received Reports – sent and received QSL Via Direct __ Manager ___ ____ QSL Via Direct __ Manager ___ ____ Contest Serial Numbers Contest Serial Numbers Optional Items are: Optional Items are: Power Power QTH of Station Worked QTH of Station Worked DX Operator’s Name DX Operator’s Name

24 QSL Card Format Your callsign, name, address, country, zip code, and address. Your callsign, name, address, country, zip code, and address. Use an address that is independent of your provider (e.g., amsat.org, arrl.net, hotmail, yahoo mail, etc.), so that your card does not become obsolete if you change providers. Use an address that is independent of your provider (e.g., amsat.org, arrl.net, hotmail, yahoo mail, etc.), so that your card does not become obsolete if you change providers. Callsign of the Amateur Radio Station contacted, callsign of the QSL Manager if applicable. Callsign of the Amateur Radio Station contacted, callsign of the QSL Manager if applicable. Date and time of contact. This is the UTC date. Since various countries use different notations (i.e., 10/1/99 or 1/10/99 for October 1, 1999) it is best to spell out the month followed by the day. Many use roman numerals for the month e.g., March = III. Date and time of contact. This is the UTC date. Since various countries use different notations (i.e., 10/1/99 or 1/10/99 for October 1, 1999) it is best to spell out the month followed by the day. Many use roman numerals for the month e.g., March = III. Band or frequency of contact. Mode of operation, SSB, CW, RTTY, etc. Band or frequency of contact. Mode of operation, SSB, CW, RTTY, etc. Signal report exchange – in the RST system. Signal report exchange – in the RST system.

25 QSL Card Format Contest name and contest exchange number if applicable. Contest name and contest exchange number if applicable. Check boxes for “Please QSL” or “Thanks for your QSL”. Check boxes for “Please QSL” or “Thanks for your QSL”. Your signature. Your signature. For a general all purpose card you can add information used for awards, such as: For a general all purpose card you can add information used for awards, such as: 10/10 Number for 10-meter contacts. 10/10 Number for 10-meter contacts. County, province, prefecture, oblast, or parish. County, province, prefecture, oblast, or parish. Grid square Grid square Zone – both CQ and ITU Zone – both CQ and ITU Your awards, especially those that count for reciprocal award working Your awards, especially those that count for reciprocal award working DX Clubs you belong to. Many offer awards for working a specified number of club members. DX Clubs you belong to. Many offer awards for working a specified number of club members.

26 QSLing – Getting The Card Your QSL card should include, your callsign, QTH, Grid Square, Signal Report, Freq/Band, Mode, Time in UTC (never local time) Your QSL card should include, your callsign, QTH, Grid Square, Signal Report, Freq/Band, Mode, Time in UTC (never local time) Since a lot of Tech class operators are on 6M, they may not have QSl cards or even care to collect them. Ask QSL Mutual. Since a lot of Tech class operators are on 6M, they may not have QSl cards or even care to collect them. Ask QSL Mutual. Customary to include an SASE for rare states, RI, WY, and grid squares. Customary to include an SASE for rare states, RI, WY, and grid squares. In dire extreme, make up a QSL card for the station that doesn’t have any, mail with SASE and ask them to sign the card. In dire extreme, make up a QSL card for the station that doesn’t have any, mail with SASE and ask them to sign the card.

27 Going Mobile On Six Meters Know what grid square you are in. Know what grid square you are in. The ArtSci Repeater Guide is a must for this – shows grid squares vs cities and highways. The ArtSci Repeater Guide is a must for this – shows grid squares vs cities and highways. A Rover is going from grid square to grid square and can often give a very rare grid square contact A Rover is going from grid square to grid square and can often give a very rare grid square contact


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