Presentation on theme: "Planning rice breeding programs for impact Choosing parents and managing a pedigree breeding program."— Presentation transcript:
Planning rice breeding programs for impact Choosing parents and managing a pedigree breeding program
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact 1.Strategies for choosing parents 2.Types of crosses 3.F2 population size 4.Describing lines and crosses 5.Pedigree versus bulk selection 6.Traits for early-generation selection 7.How many generations? 8.Field design for pedigree nurseries Learning objectives
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Question: What is important when choosing parents? At least 1 adapted parent should be used Improved donors should be used to avoid linkage drag “Pre-breeding” of improved donors is important MAS allows major gene to be moved with less linkage drag At least 1 high-quality parent should be used Backcross to high-quality parent may be necessary
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Types of crosses 2-way, 3-way (“topcrosses”), and double crosses can be used if lines are of similar performance or quality, but break up adapted linkage blocks and epistatic combinations
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Types of crosses Backcross populations When use them? if the objective is to improve one adapted parent with genes from a donor (BC1 and BC2 populations have proven very useful in developing lines with improved drought stress tolerance in IR64 background at IRRI)
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Cross% recurrent parent IR64 x donor F 1 x IR64 50 BC 1 F 1 x IR64 75 Plants crossed 1-5 crossed 20 crossed BC 2 F 1 x IR64 87.5 20 crossed Selection None BC 2 F 2 87.5 20 selfedNone BC 2 F 3 X X 87.52000 selfed Screened under severe stress Backcrossing with selection to improve IR64 for drought
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Question: How many crosses should one make? Most programs make too many crosses, examine populations that are too small Choosing parents carefully is more important than making many crosses. Some programs make very few crosses with diverse parents E.g. Witcombe and collaborators in India and Nepal: – Crossed Kalinga III/IR64 – Farmers selected both upland- and lowland-adapted cultivars from the cross
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Describing crosses 1.Parents are separate by slashes (“/”): e.g.IR 64/Swarna 2.In complex pedigrees, additional slashes are used to describe more recent crosses. e.g. IR64/Swarna//PSBRC 80 (PSBRC 80 was crossed to plants derived from IR64/Swarna) 3.Backcrosses are denoted by a number indicating number of doses of recurrent parent, followed by an asterisk or ‘x’. e.g. if Kalinga III is crossed to IR64 and then the F1 is backcrossed to IR 64, the cross is described as: Kalinga III/2*IR 64
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Describing lines 1.Each cross should receive a unique, consecutive number e.g. The IRRI cross IR55419-04/Way Rarem is: IR74371 (This number can be thought of as referring to the F1.) 2.Individual plants selected from segregating generations (F2 onward for a single cross) are given a unique plant number. Lines derived from these plants are identified by the plant number: e.g. The line derived from the 24th F2 plant selected from IR74371 is: IR74371-24.
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Describing lines 3.If a generation is harvested in bulk, without single plant selection, the resulting population is denoted “B”. e.g. If the F 2 of IR74371 is harvested in bulk, without selection, it is denoted IR74371-B IR74371-B-7 denotes the 7 th F 3 plant selected from a bulk F 2 Exercise Describe the selection history of line IR74371-B-5-6-B-B-43
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Homozygosity of a line For a line in F generation n, the proportion of loci that are homozygous, relative to the number of heterozygous loci in the F1, is: Exercise What proportion of loci that were heterozygous in the F1 are homozygous in the F5 ? 1 – (0.5)n-1 6.25%
Homogeneity of a line Homogeneity means sameness or uniformity Lines derived from homozygous plants are homogeneous Lines derived from heterozygous plants are segregating and non-uniform The degree of genetic uniformity of a line is determined by the level of homozygosity of the plant from which it was derived e.g. A single plant selected from an F3 bulk has a homozygosity level of 1-(.5)2 = 0.75, relative to the F1. A line derived from this plant by selfing is fixed at 75% of the loci that were heterozygous in the F1.
Lines in the same inbreeding generations can have very different levels of homogeneity! Example: consider 2 lines in the F 6. One derived from a single F 3 plant, the other from an F 5 plant. In the F 3 plant, 75% of loci are homozygous In the F 5 plant, 93.75% of loci are homozygous An F 3 –derived F 6 line is therefore more homogeneous than an F 5 derived F 6 line, although the plants in each are equally homozygous. For the example above: The F 3 –derived line in the F 6 is denoted as: F 3,6 The F 5 –derived line in the F 6 is denoted as: F 5,6 Homogeneity of a line
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact What is your opinion on: Pedigree versus bulk selection Advancing in bulk to F3 is almost always more efficient than pure pedigree selection Even using bulk method, mild selection for plant type, grain shape can be applied About 2000 plants should be carried per generation
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact How many generations should pedigree selection continue? 2 factors to consider: 1.Phenotypic (visible) uniformity If the line is not visibly uniform, it needs reselection 2.Genetic heterogeneity remaining within the line. Genetic heterogeneity (variability) is the “fuel” of selection Selecting among genetically homogeneous plants is pointless
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Exercise Construct a table for lines established from the F 3 through the F 8 generation, indicating the proportion of segregating loci expected within the line. GenerationProportion of segregating loci F3F3 F4F4 F5F5 F6F6 F7F7 F8F8 25 12.5 6.25 3.13 1.56 0.78
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Controlling field variability in pedigree nurseries Field variability can have a big impact on even highly heritable traits like height, DTF etc. Use repeated checks, but not too many Select among nearby lines (gridding) Treat groups of advanced sister lines as replicates of a family; select on the basis of family means rather than individual line performance (or select the best lines from the best families)
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Conventional arrangement Range 1 IR70000-1-1-1 IR70000-1-1-2 IR70000-1-1-3 IR70000-2-14-1 IR70000-2-14-2 IR70000-2-14-3 Range 2 IR70002-3-1-1 IR70002-3-1-2 IR70002-3-1-3 IR70005-5-7-1 IR70005-5-7-2 IR70005-5-7-3 Range 3 IR70007-6-4-1 IR70007-6-4-2 IR70007-6-4-3 IR70010-3-8-1 IR70010-3-8-2 IR70010-3-8-3 Selection based on family means
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Block 1 IR70000-1-1-1 IR70000-2-14-1 IR70002-3-2-1 IR70005-5-7-1 IR70007-6-4-1 IR70010-3-8-1 Block 2 IR70000-1-1-2 IR70000-2-14-2 IR70002-3-2-2 IR70005-5-7-2 IR70007-6-4-2 IR70010-3-8-2 (randomize) Block 3 IR70000-1-1-3 IR70000-2-14-3 IR70002-3-2-3 IR70005-5-7-3 IR70007-6-4-3 IR70010-3-8-3 (randomize) Selection based on family means Blocking by families
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Any questions or comments?
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Summary 1 Most successful crosses have at least 1 high-quality, adapted parent that is preferred by farmers in the TPE BC1- or BC2-derived populations may be efficient for generating high-quality, high-yield lines because they leave adapted gene blocks in the elite recurrent parents intact At least 2000 plants should be screened in the F2 A standard pedigree description system should be used Bulk inbreeding in the F2 and F3 generations is used by some breeders to inexpensively produce uniform lines
IRRI: Planning breeding Programs for Impact Summary 2 Pedigree selection should focus only on highly heritable, easily-scored traits (unless family selection is used.) There is little genetic variability among F6 sister lines derived from the same F5 plant Regularly occurring checks should be included in pedigree nurseries, but their frequency should not exceed 10% of the total number of plots Selection among families of closely-related lines can be used in advanced pedigree generations. Individual lines in a family can be treated as replicates, and planted in different blocks to overcome the effect of field variability