Presentation on theme: "Heredity – The passing of characteristics from"— Presentation transcript:
1In this family portrait, are the grandparents the parents to the mother or father? How can you tell?
2Heredity – The passing of characteristics from parent to offspring.Genetics – the study of heredity
3Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The father of genetics.
4The Role of Fertilization During sexual reproduction, male and female reproductive cells join in a process known as fertilization to produce a new cell.In peas, this new cell develops into a tiny embryo encased within a seed.
5The Role of Fertilization Self fertilization creates offspring with identical traits to themselves. Mendel called these plants true breeding.In other words, the traits of each successive generation would be the same.
7A trait is a specific characteristic of an individual, such as seed color or plant height, and may vary from one individual to another.
8The Role of Fertilization Mendel studied seven different traits of pea plants, each of which had two contrasting characteristics, such as green seed color or yellow seed color.Mendel crossed plants with each of the seven contrasting characteristics and then studied their offspring.The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits are called hybrids.
9Genes and AllelesWhen doing genetic crosses, we call the original pair of plants the P, or parental, generation.Their offspring are called the F1, or “first filial,” generation.In each cross, the nature of the other parent, with regard to each trait, seemed to have disappeared.
10Genes and AllelesFrom these results, Mendel drew two conclusions. His first conclusion formed the basis of our current understanding of inheritance.An individual’s characteristics are determined by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next.Scientists call the factors that are passed from parent to offspring genes.
11Genes and AllelesEach of the traits Mendel studied was controlled by one gene that occurred in two contrasting varieties.These gene variations produced different expressions, or forms, of each trait.The different forms of a gene are called alleles.
12What are the genes?What are the alleles for each gene?
13Dominant and Recessive Traits Mendel’s second conclusion is called the principle of dominance. This principle states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.An organism with at least one dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will exhibit that form of the trait.An organism with a recessive allele for a particular form of a trait will exhibit that form only when the dominant allele for the trait is not present.
16F1F2Mendel found in the F2 generation that about ¼ of the plants displayed the recessive allele for the trait.
17Yy Gene – pea color Alleles – yellow green Dominant (Y) Recessive (y) Mendel realized that there were two alleles for this trait – yellow and green peas.He also discovered one was dominant over the other – which one?The pea plants in Mendel’s F1 generation had both allelesMendel suggested that during the formation of sex cell’s, or gametes, these alleles seperated, or segregated from each otherYyYy
18Definitions Segregation – seperation Gametes – sex cells During gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other, so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.
19Name one gene(trait) that you inherited from your parents Name one gene(trait) that you inherited from your parents. What are the possible alleles for this trait.
20How do scientist express alleles? With letter abbreviations,Capital letter for dominant alleleLower case letter for recessive allele
21Allele representation G – green (dominant)g – yellow (recessive)
22genotypeThe alleles that are present in the organism for the specific gene.(The genetic make up)GG or Gg or gg
23phenotypeThe trait that is expressed (what we see)
24What is the phenotype?What are the possible genotypes?
25homozygousWhen an organism has two identical alleles for a particular geneGGgg
26heterozygousWhen an organism has two different alleles for the same gene.Gg
27What are the 4 possible allele combinations for the gametes of a parent who has the following genotype: BbGg
29According to what we learned in the past week, what would you predict the offspring to look like? This cross is an exception to Mendel’s principle. It is displaying Incomplete DominanceIncomplete Dominance – when some alleles are neither dominant or recessive. The heterozygous phenotype expresses itself somewhere between the 2 homozygous phenotypes.
30CodominanceWhen the cross produces an offspring in which both alleles are clearly expressed.
31Multiple Alleles A gene with more than 2 alleles. An individual will only have 2 of the alleles, however there are many different alleles within the population
32Polygenic traitsTraits produced by the expression of several genes.
33Genes and the Environment Environmental conditions can affect gene expression and influence genetically determined traits.Butterflies that hatch in summer have different color patterns on wings than those hatching in the spring.-shorter days more pigment in their wings(pigment helps to warm up butterfly)
34What is the difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross?
35Monohybrid is a cross that looks at only one trait Dihybrid is a cross that is looking at two traits.
36Which is the genotype found in a regular cell in parent Which is the genotype found in a regular cell in parent? Which is the genotype found in a gamete produced by parent? A. RrGg B. RG