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Cisco Confidential 1 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Coupling Discrete Time Events to Continuous Time in RMCAT (a.k.a. The Anatomy of a RMCAT RTT) and Reasonable Bounds on the Time Rate of Change in Available Capacity November 5, 2014

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Cisco Confidential 2 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Talk Outline 1. Motivation (Prior Work On Test Plan Capacity Change Design) 2. RMCAT Discrete Time RTT Formalized Fluid-flow (continuous-time) model and rigorous RMCAT RTT definition. 3. Infinitely Fast Capacity Change Downward Unavoidable delay spike caused by infinitely fast capacity change. How to avoid the delay spike (proposal could be presented to IETF). 4. How Quickly ANY RMCAT Design Can Track Capacity Changes Result is independent of algorithm type (“self-clocked” or “rate-based”). 5. Reasonable Assumptions on Time-Rate-of-Change of Capacity Worse-case RTT defines “tracking responsiveness” (w/o predictive component). Squelching mechanisms required (self-clocked schemes do this automatically). TCP Dynamics as a function of their RTT. A reasonable bound on RTCP feed back intervals. 6. Implications for Adaptation with Wireless (WiFi/LTE/etc).

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Cisco Confidential 3 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Motivation (Discussion at IETF 90) Colin Perkins (Last Call on rmcat-cc-requirements): However, as I noted at IETF 90, I think the draft should also include a secondary requirement to keep delay variation (jitter) down, where possible, since larger delay variation needs larger receiver-side buffers to compensate, increasing overall latency. NADAv2 Large Delay Spikes Colin (and others) believed these might be artifacts of the algorithms

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Cisco Confidential 4 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A RMCAT Lab Discrete Time RTT (for Seq. No. = Z) Note: Per-packet Feedback (no RTCP yet) Gig 0/0.11 192.168.11.2 Router After Bottleneck Bottleneck Link Router Before Bottleneck RMCAT Source RMCAT Receiver = Z Receive Timestamp Step 2: Receiver Records Reception of Z = ACK Z Receive Timestamp Step 4: Records Reception of ACK of Z Step 1: Source Sends Z = Z Send Timestamp Bottleneck Direction = ACK Z Send Timestamp Step 3: ACK of Z sent t n-2 t n-1 tntn t k-2 t k-1 tktk time Earliest Possible Feedback Direction of Feedback/ACKs d f1 = Forward Propagation Delay Prior to Bottleneck d f2 = Forward Propagation Delay After Bottleneck d r = Reverse Propagation Delay d(t) = Queue Delay at Continuous Time t Modelled zero receiver processing delay d proc = 0

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Cisco Confidential 5 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. RMCAT LAB: Measurement Framework (Seq. No. = Z) t n-2 t n-1 tntn t k-2 t k-1 tktk time Sequence number Z sent. Sequence number Z received (forward delay calculated here). t ack,Z is the earliest time that the queue measurement is available at source (new rate change can occur here). The time the queue was actually sampled is t queue,Z = (t n +d f1 ). t ack,Z Sequence number Z-1 sent. d f1 Let’s define continuous time t for fluid-flow modelling of the rate adaption component. That is, let (t-t OFFSET ) represet times offset from time t. The effect of the rate change on the queue occurs d f1 after the source made the rate change (a full RTT after the queue was sampled)!

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Cisco Confidential 6 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. RMCAT: Continuous Time Modeling for Control Loop RMCAT Sender: Generates New Rate, r(t) Queue RMCAT Reciever RMCAT Sender: Receiver d f1 d f2 d(t) (≈ d 0 at equilibrium) drdr d send_proc =0 d pcv_proc =0 (no RTCP) r send (t) q(t) = max [ q( t - ) + (r at_queue (t) – C), 0 ] For small ; Queue increases/decreases as difference in rates Also note: r at_queue (t) = r send ( t – d f1 ) d(t) = q(t)/C When queue not emptied, it integrates the difference in rates (1/s in Laplace Domain).

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Cisco Confidential 7 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Control Loop: Laplace Domain (linearize about equilibrium) RMCAT Sender Queue RMCAT Reciever RMCAT Receiver e- s(df2) P Q (s) = Queue Prediction Part X R (s) = Rate Mechanics Part e- s(dr) e- s(df1) e- s(0) =1 (could model a RTCP mean delay of 100ms) 1 e- s(0) =1 R(s) = X R (s)P Q (s) 1/[sC] Key Control Loop Observations At Equilibrium: LTI System => Doesn’t matter where prediction or rate control is (sender or receiver). Wherever it is, it WILL take a minimum of a RTT 1 to make a difference at the queue. 1 – If the RTCP reporting interval is >> (d f1 +d f2 +d r ), it will dominate. If not, it will look like delay noise to individual delay samples.

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Cisco Confidential 8 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. So … What is the Discrete-Time RMCAT RTT Definition? RMCAT Sender: Generates New Rate, r(t) Queue RMCAT Reciever RMCAT Sender: Receiver d f1 d f2 d(t) (≈ d 0 at equilibrium) drdr d send_proc =0 d pcv_proc =0 Forward Delay = d f1 + { d(t)| }+ d f2 t = t SAMP RMCAT RTT (t i ) | = d f1 + { d(t)| }+ d f2 + d r t = t SAMP (seq no z) t i = t ACK for seq Z received RMCAT RTT ( t i ) | = d f1 + d f2 + d r + d(t – [d x + d f2 + d r ] ), t i = t ACK for seq z rcveived where d x = d(t)| t = t SAMP (seq no z)

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Cisco Confidential 9 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Queue Delay Variation During Downward Capacity Change Fastest Possible Rate Adaptation Example (imprudently quick) C i C (i+1) Assume r(t) = C i before t 0 t0t0 Assume rate control estimates C (i+1) via the queue sample immediately after t 0 and then sends at C (i+1) (or less) as soon as possible. t 0 + RTT Minimum response time to affect queue. Minimum possible delay spike is caused by (C (i+1) - C i ) * RTT too many bits on queue. Example in IETF RMCAT Test Plan: Capacity: 2500 kbps -> 600kbps Assume RTT: 0.200 seconds (100 ms one-way) Minimum ADDITIONAL bits on queue before we can do anything about it 380000 bits. Queue must empty at 600 kbps rate. Thus minimum delay spike is 633 ms! Note: If we assumed one-way delay of 50 ms, 316 ms is minimum.

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Cisco Confidential 10 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Queue Delay Variation During Downward Capacity Change Fastest Possible Rate Adaptation Example (imprudently quick) C i C (i+1) r(t) = C i (queue at equilibrium, delay at equilibrium is d 0 ) t0t0 t 0 + RTT Delay at Queue, d(t) d0d0 [C i - C (i+1) ] C (i+1) d acc = m 1 d min_spike = (d acc + d 0 ) Different Candidate Responses integration at queue To lower d min_spike, decrease rate of change to new rate Minimum delay spike NOT caused by candidates! * RTT Accumulated bits delay

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Cisco Confidential 11 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Talk Outline 1. Motivation (Prior Work On Test Plan Capacity Change Design) 2. RMCAT Discrete Time RTT Formalized Fluid-flow (continuous-time) model and rigorous RMCAT RTT definition. 3. Infinitely Fast Capacity Change Downward Unavoidable delay spike caused by infinitely fast capacity change. How to avoid the delay spike (proposal could be presented to IETF). 4. How Quickly ANY RMCAT Design Can Track Capacity Changes Result is independent of algorithm type (“self-clocked” or “rate-based”). 5. Reasonable Assumptions on Time-Rate-of-Change of Capacity Worse-case RTT defines “tracking responsiveness” (w/o predictive component). Squelching mechanisms required (self-clocked schemes do this automatically). TCP Dynamics as a function of their RTT. A reasonable bound on RTCP feed back intervals. 6. Implications for Adaptation with Wireless (WiFi/LTE/etc).

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Cisco Confidential 12 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. C i C (i+1) t0t0 t 0 + RTT How Quickly Can RMCAT Track Available Capacity Changes? Answer: It Depends on the RTT, Duh! The quickest time a RMCAT flow can possibly “measure” (and “react to”) changes in capacity is bounded by ITS round-trip time. Thus the quickest time it can influence it’s contribution to the queue after a change in capacity is thus bounded by ITS round-trip time. Corollary: RMCAT flows with different RTTs can react to changes on different time scales (which correspond to their individual RTTs). Just like TCP! A reasonable ASSUMPTION for the fastest time-rate-of-change in available capacity is one which could be tracked (i.e., measured and reacted to) by a RMCAT flow with an assumed worst-case RTT and RTCP interval.

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Cisco Confidential 13 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A reasonable assumption bound for RMCAT time rate of change in available capacity t?t? t ? + RTT C(t) C Local_Max C Max_Change C Local_Min Assume worst-case RMCAT RTT of ~250 ms (¼ sec). Highest capacity change “frequency” that is actionable is f MAX ≈ 4 Hz. Capacity changes faster than this CANNOT be “seen/sensed/measured” and then “actionable” by a RMCAT flow with the “worst-case RTT”. 1 Ditto for ACK-based, “self-clocked”, protocols like TCP, SCReAM too! TCP can’t know to stop within this time either; as they only stop after their ACKs stop. TCP thus “pounds the queue” causing gross overflow events on long RTT connections too! Corollary: “Fast Response” is a matter of the worst-case capacity change assumption - not a fundamental property of “self-clocked” protocols. 2 2 - Rebuttal to: http://conferences.sigcomm.org/sigcomm/2014/doc/slides/150.pdf 1 – If other information was known (e.g., form), predictive components could react quicker.

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Cisco Confidential 14 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 14 1 TCP, Delay seen by Voice Packets Near 100% Link Utilization (delay 30 ~ 80 ms) Queue emptied only 4 times* -Serialization delay for TCP packet ~ 11 ms Voice Only RTT Estimate ~ 50ms, fast reaction per unit time TCP Dynamics as a Function of the RTT 1 TCP: Voice Delay, 50 ms BE Queue Loss-Based Rate Control Overfills Queues and CAUSES substantial loss

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Cisco Confidential 15 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15 100% Link Utilization (delay 100 ~ 500 ms) Queue Never Emptied 1 TCP, Delay seen by Voice Packets We have loss with much larger persistent delays! Rate dynamics clearly a function of RTT (including queue delay). If capacity downward occurred quickly within RTT near queue overflow, the TCP (control loop) would have behaved similarly to our RMCAT Candidates. RTT Estimate now includes queuing delay... subsequent rate increase reaction times are slowed. TCP Dynamics as a Function of the RTT 1 TCP: Voice Delay, 500 ms BE Queue

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Cisco Confidential 16 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. ACK-Gated RMCAT Proposals (a la Ericsson) t0t0 t 0 + RTT C(t) C Local_Max C Max_Change C Local_Min On long-RTT connections, ACK-gated protocols will also hit the queue too hard and build up excess delay. They will “stop” quickly – but that is a matter of degree (by comparison to how rate-based designs) – not because of some more beneficial property of ACK-gated protocols.* Once a worst-case RTT assumption has been made, it imposes a theoretical constraint on how quickly ANY RMCAT FLOW can adapt to it. Thus imposing a “hidden assumption” on the time-rate-of-change of capacity ANY RMCAT DESIGN on the worst-case RTT can adapt to. This, in turn, imposes a minimum RTCP spacing constraint: For 250 ms RTT, < π/2 spacing (@4 Hz) implies T RTCP ≤ ~ 62.5 ms.

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Cisco Confidential 17 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Implications for WiFi/LTE/Wireless Adaptation t0t0 t 0 + RTT C(t) C Local_Max C Max_Change C Local_Min On long-RTT connections, ACK-gated protocols will also hit the queue too hard and build up excess delay. They will “stop” quickly – but that is a matter of degree (by comparison to rate-based approaches) – not because of some more beneficial property of “self-clocked” protocols over rate-controlled protocols. Repeated/paraphrased from last slide: Summary: We will need to develop better “squelching conditions” in future enhancements to our present RMCAT designs (i.e., when feedback stops and/or becomes irregular). Complete squelch is only prudent when there is no impairment in feedback path. Wireless challenges now become a known second-order problem; unless we want to limit RTT (not possible) or go to per-packet feedback (non RTCP approaches).

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Cisco Confidential 18 © 2013-2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Summary 1. RMCAT Discrete Time RTT Formalized Fluid-flow (continuous-time) model and rigorous RMCAT RTT definition. 2. How Quick Can ANY RMCAT Design Can Track Capacity Changes Result is independent of algorithm type (“self-clocked” or “rate-based”). 3. Reasonable Assumptions on Time-Rate-of-Change of Capacity Worse-case RTT defines “tracking responsiveness” (w/o predictive component). Like TCP, dynamics of RMCAT solution will be a function of their RTT. The feedback intervals and flow RTT will determine capacity tracking ability. Bounding feedback intervals and worst-case RTT effectively bounds best-case tracking. 4. Implications for Adaptation with Wireless (WiFi/LTE/etc). Squelching mechanisms required (self-clocked schemes do this automatically).

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