Presentation on theme: "Present Situation and its Future Potential of Cassava Production and Utilization in Thailand Watana Watananonta Senior Expert on Field Crops Department."— Presentation transcript:
Present Situation and its Future Potential of Cassava Production and Utilization in Thailand Watana Watananonta Senior Expert on Field Crops Department of Agriculture
Cassava growing area: 1. The eastern region 2. The Northeast region 3. The central region
Figure 1. Cassava harvested area, production and yield in Thailand from 1961 to 2005. Source: FAOSTAT, 2006.
Table 3 Cassava production costs (US$/ha) in Thailand in 1990/2000 Ave.Ave. all farmers advanced farmers 1. Labor cost ($/ha)168.48167.18 2. Other costs($/ha)125.65198.73 3. Total variable costs($/ha)294.16365.91 4. Total Production Costs 341.70414.80 Yield (t/ha)16.5223.40 Root price ($/t fresh roots)21.6221.62 Gross income ($/ha)357.16505.91 Net income ($/ha)15.4691.11 Production costs 20.6817.71 ($/t fresh roots) 1 US$ = 37 baht; cost of labor 120 baht/day Source: TTDI
Table 5. Domestic use of cassava native starch in Thailand in 2003. Monosodium glutamate 250.000 t Sweeteners Food industries 200.000 t Paper 120.000 t Modified starch 70.000 t Sago 60.000 t Textile 10.000 t Others (glue, medicine etc.) 20.000 t Total Total 980.000 t
Local consumption Growers Starch factories Small scale enterpreneur Pellet companies (Pelletization) Traders Modification Cassava roots Cassava starchCassava chips Export market Modified starch Pellets Figure 3 Marketing structure of cassava in Thailand. Local consumption
Figure 4. Monthly trend in the price of fresh cassava roots (at 30% starch content) in Nakhon Ratchasima province of Thailand form 1995 to 2003. Source: Thai Tapioca Trade Assoc. (TTTA), 2004. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 JMM J Cassava fresh root price (baht/tonne) SNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSN 199519961997199819992000200120022003 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Figure 5 Monthly trend in the price (FOB Bangkok) of cassava starch and hard pellets from 1995 to 2003. Source: Thai Tapioca Trade Assoc. (TTTA), 2004. 0 100 200 300 400 500 Starch and hard pellet price (US$ tonne) JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSNJMM JSN JMM JSN 199519961997199819992000200120022003 0 100 200 300 400 500 Starch Hard pellets
Table 6. Road map for production of cassava to satisfy both domestic and export requirements for cassava chips, pellets, starch and ethanol on Thailand from 2004/05 to 2007/08. AreaYieldProduction Utilization (mil. tones fresh root equivalent) Year(mil.ha)(t/ha)(mil./ha) Chips Pellets Starch Ethanol 2004/05 0.9917.116.9 6.59 1.01 9.30 0 -1.18 dom. -0 dom. -2.88 dom. -5.41exp. -1.01 exp. -6.42 exp. 2005/06 1.0418.218.9 6.34 1.06 10.86 0.64 -0.69 dom. -0 dom. -4.08 dom. -5.65 exp. -1.06 exp. -6.78 exp. 2006/07 1.0522.323..55 7.55 1.05 12.60 2.20 -1.19 dom. -0 dom. -5.06 dom. -6.36 exp. -1.05 exp. -7.54 exp. 2007/08 1.0526.227.5 8.26 1.04 13.50 4.70 -1.25 dom. -0 dom. -5.41 dom. -7.01 exp. -1.04 exp. -8.09 exp.
Cassava Varietal Improvement Objective: - High root yield/ high starch yield in form of dry matter content - Early harvesting - Adaptation for unfavorable condition - For human consumption - Resistance CBB, brown leaf spot, root rot, red mite and termite - Good plant type suitable for cultural practice and harvesting
collection, introduction hybridization seedling selection clonal selection preliminary yield trial standard yield trial regional yield trial farmer’s field yield trial farmer’s field test variety recommendation (seed) Figure 1 Flow chart of cassava varietal improvement (cuttings)
Table 7 Background and outstanding characteristics of 12 released cultivars in Thailand (including Rayong 1). Cultiva r Year of release Parents Background and outstanding characteristics Rayong 1 1975Unknown Selected from a local land race. Excellent agronomic triats. Relatively high yield, low input Rayong 3 1983(F)MMex55 (M)MVen30 7 Selected from CIAT F1 hybrid seeds. High dry matter content Rayong 2 1984(F)MCol113(M)MCol22 Selected from CIAT F1 hybrid seeds. Recommended for human consumption Rayong 60 1987 (F)MCol168 4 (M)Rayong 1 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. Recommended for early harvest, high yield Sriracha 1 1991 (F)MCol113X MCol22 (M)R1XMCol2 2 Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. Excellent Agronomic triats. HDMC Rayong 90 1991(F)CMC76(M)V43 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. HDMC, High yield
Table 7 Background and outstanding characteristics of 12 released cultivars in Thailand (including Rayong 1). (continous) Cultiva r Year of release Parents Background and outstanding characteristics Kasetsar t50 1992(F)Rayong1 (M)Rayong 90 Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. High yield, HDMC. Well adapted to unflavorable condition. Rayong 5 1994 (F)MR27- 77-10 (M)Rayong 3 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. High dry matter content, high yield Rayong 72 1999(F)Rayong1 (M)Rayong 5 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. HDMC, high yield, good germination, drought tolerant Huaybon g 60 2002(F)Rayong5(M)KU50 Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. High yield, HDMC, Rayong 7 2005 (F)CMR30- 71-25 (M)OMR29- 20-118 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. HDMC, high yield, suitable for late rainy season Rayong 9 2005 (F)CMR31- 19-23 (M)OMR29- 20-118 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds.HDMC, High yield, suitable for ethanol industry.
Preserve as In Vitro at Rayong Field Crops Research Center
Cultural practices - Land preparation - Planting methods, spacing - Planting times and age harvest - Weed control - Cassava stem storage - Fertilization and soil conservation
Pest and diseases Fortunately, Thailand has not experienced any serious pest and diseases infestation in cassava. - Cassava bacteria blight (CBB) - Cassava brown leaf spot, root rot - Red mite, termite, white grub
Farmer participatory research and extension (FPR & FPE) The use of FPR & FPE showed that farmers become more aware of the importance of soil conservation. The most appropriate methods of soil erosion control were selected by farmers and tested their own fields to develop the most suitable practices for their own conditions. It was very effective in developing more suitable varieties and production practices which farmers could readily adopt and then disseminate to after farmers in neighboring communities.
Cassava leaves as animal feed - Protein content 20 - 27% - Harvest every 2-3 months for 1 year could produce dry foliage varied from 4-12 t/ha - Good profile of amino acid as compound with soybean meal and alfalfa hay - Increase the milk thiocyanate content could enhance milk quality and milk storage
Vision and Development Strategy of Thai Cassava 1.The whole of fresh root yield go to produce chips and pellets of 50% and to produce starch of 50% 2. To establish cluster of Thai cassava 3.Government maintain the high price 1.50 baht/kg of fresh root for farmers 4.Remain farmers ’ income oriented policy 5.To change using high yield varieties 6.Short term target yield at 18.75 t/ha medium term at 31 t/ha 7.Starch export would continue to expand world wide especially in Asia countries 8. Ethanol production for domestic use