2Vocabulary Genetics: The scientific study of heredity Character: heritable featureTrait: each variant for a characterTrue-breeding: plants that self-pollinate all offspring are the same varietyAllele: alternate version of a geneDominate allele: An allele which is expressed (masks the other) in the heterozygote & homozygoteRecessive allele: An allele which is present but remains unexpressed (masked) in the heterozygote
3Vocabulary (continued) Homozygote – pair of identical alleles for a characterHomozygous dominant- BBHomozygous recessive - bbHeterozygote – two different alleles for a character (Bb)Genotype – genetic makeup; combination of alleles an organism hasPhenotype – appearance of an organism; the characteristics determined by the genotype and environmental influences
4VocabularyMonohybrid cross – a cross that tracks the inheritance of a single characterP generation – (parental) true-breedingF1- (first filial) offspring of P generationF2 – (second filial) offspring from F1 cross
5HistoryPrinciples of genetics were developed in the mid 19th century by Gregor Mendel an Austrian MonkDeveloped these principles without ANY scientific equipment - only his mind.Experimented with pea plants, by crossing various strains and observing the characteristics of their offspring.Studied the following characteristics:Pea color (Green, yellow)Pea shape (round, wrinkled)Flower color (purple, white)Plant height (tall, short)Made the following observations (example given is pea shape)When he crossed a round pea and wrinkled pea, the offspring (F1 gen.) always had round peas.When he crossed these F1 plants, however, he would get offspring which produced round and wrinkled peas in a 3:1 ratio.
9Laws of InheretanceLaw of Segregation: When gametes (sperm, egg, etc…) are formed each gamete will receive one allele or the other.Law of Independent Assortment: Two or more alleles will separate independently of each other when gametes are formed
11Punnett SquaresGenetic problems can be easily solved using a tool called a Punnett square.Tool for calculating genetic probabilitiesA Punnett square
12Monohybrid cross (cross with only 1 trait) Problem:Using this is a several step process, look at the following exampleTallness (T) is dominant over shortness (t) in pea plants. A Homozygous tall plant (TT) is crossed with a short plant (tt). What is the genotypic makeup of the offspring? The phenotypic makeup ?
13Punnet processDetermine alleles of each parent, these are given as TT, and tt respectively.Take each possible allele of each parent, separate them, and place each allele either along the top, or along the side of the punnett square.
14Punnett process continued Lastly, write the letter for each allele across each column or down each row.The resultant mix is the genotype for the offspring.In this case, each offspring has a Tt (heterozygous tall) genotype, and simply a "Tall" phenotype.
15Punnett process continued Lets take this a step further and cross these F1 offspring (Tt) to see what genotypes and phenotypes we get.Since each parent can contribute a T and a t to the offspring, the punnett square should look like this…
16Punnett process continued Here we have some more interesting results: First we now have 3 genotypes (TT, Tt, & tt) in a 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. We now have 2 different phenotypes (Tall & short) in a 3:1 Phenotypic ratio. This is the common outcome from such crosses.
21Law of Independent Assortment – Each set of alleles segregates independently
22Test cross – designed to reveal the genotype of an organism
23Mendelian Inheritance and Rules of Probability Rule of Multiplication – the probability that two events will occur simultaneously is the product of their individual probabilitiesProbability that an egg from the F1 (Pp) will receive p = ½Probability that an sperm from the F1 (Pp) will receive p = ½Probability that a of offspring receiving two recessive alleles during fertilization½ x ½ = ¼
24Rule Applies to dihybrid Crosses For a dihybrid cross, YyRr x YyRr, what is the probability of an F2 having the genotype YYRR?Go page 267 and work #9 and #10
25Dihybrid CrossesDihybrid crosses are made when phenotypes and genotypes composed of 2 independent alleles are analyzed.Process is very similar to monohybrid crosses.Example:2 traits are being analyzedPlant height (Tt) with tall being dominant to short,Flower color (Ww) with Purple flowers being dominant to white.
26Dihybrid Cross Example The cross with a pure-breeding (homozygous) Tall,Purple plant with a pure-breeding Short, white plant should look like this.F1 generation
27Dihybrid Cross Example continued Take the offspring and cross them since they are donating alleles for 2 traits, each parent in the f1 generation can give 4 possible combination of alleles. TW, Tw, tW, or tw. The cross should look like this. (The mathematical “foil” method can often be used here)F2 Generation
28Dihybrid Cross Example continued Note that there is a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. 9/16 showing both dominant traits, 3/16 & 3/16 showing one of the recessive traits, and 1/16 showing both recessive traits.Also note that this also indicates that these alleles are separating independently of each other. This is evidence of Mendel's Law of independent assortment
29Other Factors: Incomplete Dominance Some alleles for a gene are not completely dominant over the others. This results in partially masked phenotypes which are intermediate to the two extremes.
31CodominanceTwo alleles affect the phenotype in separate and distinguishable ways.Neither allele can mask the other and both are expressed in the offspring and not in an “intermediate” form.Example: red flowers that are crossed with white flowers that yield red and white flowers.
321) In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous (Rr) offspring of red (RR) and white (rr) homozygotes. When two roan cattle are crossed, the phenotypes of the progeny are found to be in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white. Which of the following crosses could produce the highest percentage of roan cattle?A) roan x roanB) red x whiteC) white x roanD) red x roanE) All of the above crosses would give the same percentage of roan.
34PleiotropyMost genes have multiple phenotypic effects. The ability of a gene to affect an organism in many ways is called pleiotropy.
35EpistasisEpistasis occurs when a gene at one locus alters or influences the expression of a gene at a second loci. In this example, C is for color and the dominate allele must be present for pigment (color) to be expressed.
36Polygenetic Inheritance Qualitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance. This occurs when there is an additive effect from two or more genes. Pigmentation in humans is controlled by at least three (3) separately inherited genes.
37Other Factors: Continuous Variation Many traits may have a wide range of continuous values. Eg. Human height can vary considerably. There are not just "tall" or "short" humans
38Chromosomes and Classical Genetics Walter Sutton in 1902 proposed that chromosomes were the physical carriers of Mendel's allelesProblems arose however regarding the following question:Why are the number of alleles which undergo independent assortment greater than the number of chromosomes of an organism?This was explained understanding of 2 additional factors; Sex Linkage and crossing over
39Sex Linkage All chromosomes are homologous except on sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are either X or Y.If an organism is XX, it is a female, if XY it is male.If a recessive allele exists on the X chromosome. It will not have a corresponding allele on the Y chromosome, and will therefore always be expressed
40Sex Linkage ExampleRecessive gene for white eye color located on the Xw chromosome of Drosophila.All Males which receive this gene during fertilization (50%) will express this.If a female receives the Xw chromosome. It will usually not be expressed since she carries an X chromosome with the normal gene
41Human Sex Linkage Hemophilia: Disorder of the blood where clotting does not occur properly due to a faulty protein.Occurs on the X chromosome, and is recessive.Thus a vast majority of those affected are males.First known person known to carry the disorder was Queen Victoria of England. Thus all those affected are related to European royalty.
43Other Factors: Multiple Alleles Phenotypes are controlled by more than 1 allele. Eg. Blood types are regulated by 3 separate genes.ABO Blood typingHumans have multiple types of surface antigens on RBC'sThe nature of these surface proteins determines a person's Blood Type.There are 3 alleles which determine blood type IA, IB, or IO. This is referred to as having multiple allelesHuman blood types are designated as A, B or O.Type A denotes having the A surface antigen, and is denoted by IAType B denotes having the B surface antigen, and is denoted by IBType O denotes having neither A or B surface antigen, and is denoted by IOThere are several blood type combinations possibleABAB (Universal recipient)O (Universal donor)
44Blood & ImmunityA person can receive blood only when the donor's blood type does not contain any surface antigen the recipient does not. This is because the recipient has antibodies which will attack any foreign surface protein.Thus, Type AB can accept any blood types because it will not attack A or B surface antigens. However, a type AB person could only donate blood to another AB person. They are known as Universal Recipients.Also, Type O persons are Universal donors because they have NO surface antigens that recipients' immune systems can attack. Type O persons can ONLY receive blood from other type O persons.There is another blood type factor known as Rh.People are either Rh+ or Rh- based on a basic dominant/recessive mechanism.Not usually a problem except with pregnancy.It is possible that an Rh- mother can carry an Rh+ fetus and develop antibodies which will attack & destroy the fetal bloodThis usually occurs with 2nd or 3rd pregnancies, and is detectable and treatable.
45Other Factors Gene interaction: Environmental effects: Many biological pathways are governed by multiple enzymes, involving multiple steps. If any one of these steps are altered. The end product of the pathway may be disrupted.Environmental effects:Sometimes genes will not be fully expressed owing to external factors. Example: Human height may not be fully expressed if individuals experience poor nutrition.
46Environmental Impact on Phenotype pH of the soil will change the color of hydrangea flowers from blue to pink