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The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop 2007 1 Flapping Jaws and Acoustic Laws: The Singer’s Guide to Inertive Reactance (and the Voce Chiusa)

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Presentation on theme: "The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop 2007 1 Flapping Jaws and Acoustic Laws: The Singer’s Guide to Inertive Reactance (and the Voce Chiusa)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Flapping Jaws and Acoustic Laws: The Singer’s Guide to Inertive Reactance (and the Voce Chiusa)

2 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Purpose: To explore how specific manipulations of the vocal tract can help us achieve our artistic goals: To explore how specific manipulations of the vocal tract can help us achieve our artistic goals: Elongating and narrowing the epilaryngeal tube Elongating and narrowing the epilaryngeal tube Controlling the opening of the mouth Controlling the opening of the mouth

3 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop But first: Vocal Tract Acoustics ‘101’

4 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop 20074

5 5 What is Resonance? Resonance is a reinforcement of a natural behavior or phenomenon Resonance is a reinforcement of a natural behavior or phenomenon Acoustic resonance is an intensification of sound by sympathetic vibration of two or more things Acoustic resonance is an intensification of sound by sympathetic vibration of two or more things Vocal tract resonance is a selective reinforcement of a few source (larynx) frequencies by the vocal tract Vocal tract resonance is a selective reinforcement of a few source (larynx) frequencies by the vocal tract

6 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Source-Filter Theory

7 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Glottal Flow Spectrum Sound Pressure Spectrum

8 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop So, what’s so special about singers? We have to sing LOUDER than normal We have to sing LOUDER than normal We have to sing HIGHER than normal We have to sing HIGHER than normal We have to sing BEAUTIFULLY at the same time We have to sing BEAUTIFULLY at the same time

9 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Solution: Inertive reactance!

10 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Thanks to: Ingo Titze Please visit their website!

11 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop To get the maximum boost from the vocal tract we can either: Resonate one or two harmonics of the source selectively (as in harmonic singing, counter-tenor singing, high coloratura, or whistle voice), or Resonate the entire vocal fold vibration process with a vocal tract that stores and returns energy to the glottis

12 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Linear Source-Filter Acoustics Nonlinear Source-Filter Acoustics

13 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Inertance - sluggishness of response of an air column provides the feedback energy

14 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Long, narrow tubes have a lot of inertance: How does this help us as singers?

15 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Inertive reactance: Skews the flow pulse, Which increases the maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), Which increases the vocal intensity. HOW? More energy in the higher partials.

16 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Vocal Folds Trachea Piriform Sinus Valleculae Leakage into Nasal Tract Lips Epi-Larynx Tube Pharynx Mouth Vowel /a/ as in “hot” - male

17 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

18 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

19 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Formant Tuning in the soprano

20 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Formant Tuning in the soprano

21 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singer’s Formant

22 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singer’s Formant Source

23 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Adds energy to upper partials

24 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Inertive Reactance = (inertance) x (frequency) Inertive reactance measures the amount of acoustic energy stored in the vocal tract, and It also determines the amount of energy fed back to the glottis to help the vocal folds vibrate

25 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop We lengthen and narrow the tube by: Lowering the larynx Lowering the larynx ‘Squeezing’ the laryngeal aditus or the ‘collar of the larynx’ ‘Squeezing’ the laryngeal aditus or the ‘collar of the larynx’

26 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Inertive reactance is high for frequencies just below a vocal tract resonance (formant)

27 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop F1 F2 F1 F2

28 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Important combination: Length and width of the epilaryngeal tube influences the reactance Length and width of the epilaryngeal tube influences the reactance Opening of the mouth tunes F1 Opening of the mouth tunes F1

29 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singing below the first resonance F1 (chest register and female belt)

30 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Important harmonics are above F1 Important harmonics are below F1

31 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

32 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Males and female belters F1F2

33 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Classical females and countertenors F1F2

34 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Conclusion 1 With a wide-open mouth (megaphone shape), a male sound or a female belt sound can be produced as long as F1 is above the second harmonic With a wide-open mouth (megaphone shape), a male counter-tenor sound or a female classical lyric or coloratura sound can be produced as long as F1 is above the fundamental

35 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Important harmonics are above F1 Important harmonics are below F1

36 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singing above the first resonance F1 (mixed register)

37 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Male and female mixed register F1 F2

38 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Conclusion 2 With a small mouth opening (inverted megaphone shape), a mixed-register male or female sound can be produced as long as F2 is higher than the second harmonic With a small mouth opening (inverted megaphone shape), a male counter-tenor sound or a female classical lyric or coloratura sound can be produced as long as F2 is higher than the fundamental

39 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Overall Conclusion In singing, the source (larynx) can be highly interactive with the vocal tract Interaction is heightened if some part of the vocal tract is narrow, such as the epilarynx tube; this creates not only vocal ring, but higher overall intensity A semi-occluded vocal tract (at the mouth) is very friendly to a mixed register and hence is very useful for training classical singing

40 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Manuel Garcia II ( ) 1832 appointed to Paris Conservatory 1832 appointed to Paris Conservatory Central figure in 19 th C pedagogy Central figure in 19 th C pedagogy Famous pupils: Famous pupils: Battaille Battaille Stockhausen Stockhausen Malibran Malibran Marchesi Marchesi Lind Lind

41 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Manuel Garcia II ( ) …the human voice is, in the largest sense, composed of the different registers: …the human voice is, in the largest sense, composed of the different registers: Chest Falsetto-head And two timbres: Clear timbre Sombre timbre

42 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Manuel Garcia II ( ) “When the larynx produces a tone, the pharynx takes possession of it as soon as it is emitted and modifies it. Mémoire sur la voix humaine, 1840 “When the larynx produces a tone, the pharynx takes possession of it as soon as it is emitted and modifies it. Mémoire sur la voix humaine, 1840 Clear timbre Clear timbre Offers brilliance and can allow power Offers brilliance and can allow power Carried to exaggeration makes the voice shrill and yelping Carried to exaggeration makes the voice shrill and yelping

43 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Manuel Garcia II ( ) “When the larynx produces a tone, the pharynx takes possession of it as soon as it is emitted and modifies it. Mémoire sur la voix humaine, 1840 “When the larynx produces a tone, the pharynx takes possession of it as soon as it is emitted and modifies it. Mémoire sur la voix humaine, 1840 Sombre timbre Sombre timbre Gives the voice roundness Gives the voice roundness Penetration Penetration Modifies the falsetto into the ‘head’ register Modifies the falsetto into the ‘head’ register

44 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Manuel Garcia II ( ) Sombre timbre AKA voce chiusa, voix sombrée ou couverte, closed timbre AKA voce chiusa, voix sombrée ou couverte, closed timbre Timbre result of the shape of the pharynx Timbre result of the shape of the pharynx If the larynx rises – clear timbre If the larynx rises – clear timbre If the larynx remains low – sombre timbre If the larynx remains low – sombre timbre

45 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Sombre timbre Result of inertive reactance

46 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Changing Traditions Gilbert-Louis Duprez ( ) Gilbert-Louis Duprez ( ) 1837 – Paris 1837 – Paris Replaced Nourrit as Arnold in Rossini’s Guilliame Tell Replaced Nourrit as Arnold in Rossini’s Guilliame Tell Do di petto Do di petto Learned the technique in Italy Learned the technique in Italy

47 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop New expectations “After Duprez, the ut de poitrine became a requirement for the Romantic tenor high C, then or now, for the success or failure of tenors.” Stark: Bel Canto: A History of Vocal Pedagogy

48 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Voix Sombrée! June, 1840 – Diday and Pétrequin reported to the Académie des Sciences on the subject of timbre and laryngeal position as related to Duprez’s do di petto. June, 1840 – Diday and Pétrequin reported to the Académie des Sciences on the subject of timbre and laryngeal position as related to Duprez’s do di petto. Voix sombrée ou couverte (dark and covered) Voix sombrée ou couverte (dark and covered) November, 1840 – Garcia presented his theories to the academy November, 1840 – Garcia presented his theories to the academy Garcia claimed to have been teaching the lowered laryngeal posture and ‘covered tone’ since Garcia claimed to have been teaching the lowered laryngeal posture and ‘covered tone’ since 1832.

49 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Voix Sombrée! Used for register unification Used for register unification Female chest/middle voice Female chest/middle voice Male high voice “do di petto” Male high voice “do di petto” Long history of teaching this method since Garcia Long history of teaching this method since Garcia

50 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Voix Sombrée! Attention to the laryngeal posture is controversial Attention to the laryngeal posture is controversial Vowel color can be utilized: [o], [u] without mention of the larynx Vowel color can be utilized: [o], [u] without mention of the larynx Source of much of the controversy throughout history Source of much of the controversy throughout history

51 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Voce Chiusa ‘Comfortably low’ larynx elongates vocal tract - increases inertive reactance ‘Comfortably low’ larynx elongates vocal tract - increases inertive reactance ‘Squeezing the collar of the larynx’ narrows the tube - increases inertive reactance ‘Squeezing the collar of the larynx’ narrows the tube - increases inertive reactance Paying attention to mouth opening appropriately tunes F1 to achieve the aesthetic expectation Paying attention to mouth opening appropriately tunes F1 to achieve the aesthetic expectation

52 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singing with the megaphone shape helps produce high pitches in chest register (or belt voice) for Fo < 530 Hz (C5)

53 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

54 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Singing with the megaphone shape also helps produce high pitches in classical female and counter-tenor style for F0 > 530 Hz

55 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Males and female belters F1 F2

56 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Aesthetics Summary: Wide open mouth opening Wide open mouth opening Popular styles: belt (male and female), pop styles, etc. Popular styles: belt (male and female), pop styles, etc. Classical styles: Soprano in her high voice – formant tracking, counter-tenor Classical styles: Soprano in her high voice – formant tracking, counter-tenor Narrow mouth opening Narrow mouth opening Popular styles: Country & Western, flageolet Popular styles: Country & Western, flageolet Classical styles: mixed registers – female middle, male high voice Classical styles: mixed registers – female middle, male high voice

57 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Pavarotti & The Italian Tenor Decca Record Co. Limited, London. ‘O Colombina’ Pagliacci (Leoncavallo)

58 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

59 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Leontyne Price The Complete Bell Telephone Hour Performances. Video Artists International D’amor sull’ali rosee Il Trovatore (Verdi)

60 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

61 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Lauritz Melchior Bel Canto: The Tenors of the 78 Era Kultur “Morgenlich leuchtend” Die Meistersinger (Wagner)

62 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop

63 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop Giuseppe di Stefano “Tu che a Dio spiegasti l’ali” Lucia di Lammermoor (Donizetti)

64 The Vocal Pedagogy Workshop


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