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ARTIST2 - MOTIVES Trento - Italy, February 19-23, 2007 Model Transformation and UML Reiko Heckel University of Leicester, UK Foundations of Model Transformation

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Motivation: Model-driven Engineering ● Focus and primary artifacts are models instead of programs ● Core activities include – maintaining consistency – evolution – translation – execution of models ● These are examples of model transformations ● A math. foundation is needed for studying – expressiveness and complexity – execution and optimisation – well-definedness – preservation of semantics of transformations ● Graph transformations can be one such foundation

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Outline ● Graph Transformation – why it is fun – how it works ● Semantics-preserving Model Transformation

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Why it is fun: Programming By Example StageCast (www.stagecast.com): a visual programming environment for kids (from 8 years on), based onwww.stagecast.com – behavioral rules associated to graphical objects – visual pattern matching – simple control structures (priorities, sequence, choice,...) – external keyboard control intuitive rule-based behavior modelling Next: abstract from concrete visual presentation

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States of the PacMan Game: Graph-Based Presentation :Ghost :Field :PacMan marbles=3 instance graph (represents a single state; abstracts from spatial layout) type graph (specifies legal instance graphs) :Marble typing Field PacMan marbles:int Ghost Marble 1 11 * * *

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Rules of the PacMan Game: Graph-Based Presentation, PacMan f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan movePM pm:PacMan marbles=m f1:Fieldf2:Field :Marble f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan marbles=m+1 collect

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Rules of the PacMan Game: Graph-Based Presentation, Ghost f1:Fieldf2:Field g:Ghost f1:Fieldf2:Field g:Ghost moveGhost g:Ghost f1:Fieldf2:Field :PacMan f1:Fieldf2:Field g:Ghost kill

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Graph Transformation :Ghost :Field :Marble :PacMan marbles=3 :PacMan marbles=4 typing collect ; kill Field PacMan marbles:int Ghost Marble 1 11 * * *

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Outline ● Graph Transformation why it is fun – how it works ● Semantics-preserving Model Transformation

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A Basic Formalism: Typed Graphs Directed graphs – multiple parallel edges – undirected edges as pairs of directed ones Graph homomorphism as mappings preserving source and target Typed graphs given by – fixed type graph TG – instance graphs G typed over TG by homomorphism g g:Ghost :Field f:Field g Field PacMan marbles:int Ghost Marble G TG

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Rules p: L R with L R well-defined, in different presentations – like above (cf. PacMan example) – with L R explicit [DPO]: L K R f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan movePM: f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan

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Rules p: L R with L R well-defined, in different presentations – like above (cf. PacMan example) – with L R explicit [DPO]: L K R – with L, R integrated [UML, Fujaba]: L R and marking ● L - R as destroyed ● R - L as new f1:Fieldf2:Field pm:PacMan movePM: {destroyed} {new}

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Transformation Step select rule p: L R ; occurrence o L : L G remove from G the occurrence of L\ R add to result a copy of R \ L f1:Field f2:Field pm:PacMan marbles=3 m2:Marble oLoL G LR p pm:PacMan marbles=m f2:Fieldf1:Field m1:Marble f2:Fieldf1:Field pm:PacMan marbles=m+1 f3:Field m1:Marble oRoR pm:PacMan marbles=4 H f1:Field f2:Field m2:Marble f3:Field

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Semantic Questions: Dangling Edges ● conservative solution: application is forbidden – invertible transformations, no side-effects ● radical solution: delete dangling edges – more complex behavior, requires explicit control a:A :B ?

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A bit of History … Chomsky Grammars Term Rewriting Petri Nets Graph Transformation and Graph Grammars Diagram Languages Behaviour Modelling and Visual Programming Models of Computation

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Outline Graph Transformation why it is fun how it works ● Semantics-preserving Model Transformation – operational – denotational Abstract Syntax Semantic Domain denotational semantics operational semantics transformation

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Example: Executable Business Process ● refactoring of business processes, replacing centralised by distributed execution ● How to demonstrate preservation of behaviour? specify operational semantics of processes define transformations show that transformations preserve semantics Receive order Undo order Shipment Warehouse Office

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Operational Semantics: Idea ● diagram syntax plus runtime state ● GT rules to model state transitions Abstract Syntax operational semantics

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Operational Semantics: Formally GTS = (TG, P) with start graph G 0 defines transition system LTS(GTS, G 0 ) = (S, L, ) taking – as states S all graphs reachable from G 0 – observations on rules as labels – transformations as transitions

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EdgeNode Basic op: String Structured Orch name: String Msg op: String id: String SwitchInvoke src tar current tofrom partner request Reply response Elem corresponds responsible Type Graph: Metamodel …… with runtime state Abstract Syntax

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Rules: Invoke another Service e:Edge tar i:Invoke o1:Orcho2:Orch current partner e:Edge tar i:Invoke o1:Orcho2:Orch current partner m:Msg id=new() op=i.op from to req(i.id, m.id) request Abstract Syntax operational semantics

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Rules: Answer the Invocation e:Edge tar r:Reply o1:Orcho2:Orch current m1:Msg op=r.op fromto e:Edge tar r:Reply o1:Orcho2:Orch current m1:Msg op=r.op fromto m2:Msg id=new() op=r.op from to reply(r.id, m1.id, m2.id) response src e:Edge src e:Edge Abstract Syntax operational semantics

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Rules: Receive the Response i:Invoke o1:Orcho2:Orch current src m1:Msg to from m2:Msg to from e:Edge partner i:Invoke o1:Orcho2:Orch current src e:Edge partner resp(i.id, m2.id) request response Abstract Syntax operational semantics

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Simulation :Edge tar i:Invokeo1:Orcho2:Orch current partner :Edge src :Edge tar r:Reply :Edge src current m1:Msg op=i.op from to request m2:Msg op=r.op from to response Observations:req(i.id, m1.id);reply(r.id, m1.id, m2.id);resp(i.id, m2.id)

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Refactoring Executable Processes ● replace local control flow by message passing … Orch 1 Orch 2 … … Orch1 Orch 2 > Orch2.op > op > op … … … … … delegate

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Semantic Compatibility Processes P 1 and P 2 are semantically compatible if they are weakly bisimilar after hiding labels not in alph(P 1 ) ⋂ alph(P 2 ) Show for trafo P 1 P 2 that P 2 simulates P 1, i.e. – P 1 obs Q 1 implies P 2 obs Q 2 – Q 2 simulates Q 1 and vice versa. Approach: – mixed (local) confluence – critical pair analysis P1P1 Q1Q1 P2P2 Q2Q2 obs obs

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Critical Pairs and Local Confluence ● a pair of rules (p 1, p 2 ) in a minimal conflict situation ● constructed by overlapping their left-hand sides so that they intersect in items to be deleted ● system is locally confluent if all critical pairs are G H * G2G2 G1G1 * p1p1 p2p2

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Critical Pair Analysis in AGG delegate vs operational rules

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Critical Pair LHS of invoke vs delegate delete-use-conflict

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Outline Graph Transformation why it is fun how it works ● Semantics-preserving Model Transformation operational – denotational Abstract Syntax Semantic Domain denotational semantics operational semantics transformation

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Process Improvement Motivation: – transform process to increase flexibility, performance,... – preserve behaviour! Aim: rule-level verification

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Rule-level Verification r LR L R r/o s(L) s(R) G H s(G) s(H) Approach: – check for each rule r if s(L) R s(R) – make sure that s(L) R s(R) implies s(G) R s(H) semantic domain

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Works if … ● we select semantic domain SD where relation R is compositional – trace or failures equivalence or refinement in CSP is closed under context ● we can show that semantic mapping s: AS SD is compositional – maps union of graphs to composition of CSP processes use GT to define mapping s

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Context-Free Graph Grammar do something out in Act Start graph: Act in out Act in out ::= Productions in EBNF-like notation: Act in out Act [c] [not c] Concrete syntax of well-structured activity diagrams Abstract Syntax

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Analysis check availability receive order notify client calculate prize send receipt [product not available] [product available]

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Pair Grammar A:Act in out A1:Act in out A2:Act do something out in ::= A:Act A1:Act in out A2:Act [c] [not c] Proc(A) ::= Proc(A1) ; Proc(A2) if [c] then Proc(A1) else Proc(A2) do something Source: well-structured activity diagrams Proc(A) Target: CSP Abstract Syntax Semantic Domain denotational semantics

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Synthesis Proc(A0) Proc(A1) ; Proc(A2) … Proc(A3) ; Proc (A4) ; if [product available] then Proc(A5) else Proc(A8) … receive order ; check availability ; if [product available] then calculate prize ; send receipt else notify client check availability receive order notify client calculate prize send receipt [product not available] [product available]

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Good Enough … ? Visual abstract syntax or concrete syntax templates Bi-directional swap source and target grammars Declarative Expressive ? context-free graph languages only Traceable ? through naming conventions Efficient ? NP complete parsing problem … Triple Graph Grammars (see Andy’s lecture) Challenge: verify compositionality for more complex mappings

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Relevant Theory Chomsky Grammars Term Rewriting Petri Nets Graph Transformation and Graph Grammars Formal language theory of graphs; Diagram compiler generators Concurrency theory Causality and conflict Processes, unfoldings Event-structures Stochastic concepts Verification, … Well-definedness Termination Confluence Semantics of process calculi

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