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**Case study 1: Calculate the approximation of Pi**

Calculate the approximation of Pi by formula with error 1e-4. Algorithm pi = 0, s = 1, n = 1, t = s/n while fabs(t) > 1e-4 do pi = pi + t n = n +2 s = -s t = s / n; end while Pi = 4 * pi

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**Implementation #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h>**

main(){ int s = 1; double n = 1, t = 1, pi = 0; while (fabs(t)>= 1e-4) { pi = pi + t; n += 2; s = - s; t = s/n; } pi = pi * 4; printf("%10.6f\n", pi);

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**Case Study 2: Fibonacci Sequence**

Calculate the first 40 number of Fibonacci sequence: F(1) = 1, F(2) = 1, …, F(n) = F(n-1) + F(n-2) Algorithm f1 = 1, f2 = 1, i = 1 For i from 1 to 20 do Print f1 and f2 f1 = f1 + f2 f2 = f2 + f1 End of for loop

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**Implementation #include <stdio.h> main(){ long int f1, f2;**

int i; f1 = 1; f2 = 1; for (i = 1; i<=20; i++) { printf("%12ld %12ld ", f1, f2); if(i%2==0) printf("\n"); f1 = f1 + f2; f2 = f2 + f1; }

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**Case Study 3: Simple Encryption and Decryption**

Problem: Convert a plain text to a cipher text by alphabet of module k. Where 0<k<26 is an integer, used a key to encode and decode. For example if k = 3, A will be encrypted to D, and y will be encrypted to b. Encryption Algorithm: Get a key k While the input character c is not \n Convert c into its cipher text by using the kth letter forward End while For key k Convert c into its plain text by using the kth letter backward

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**Implementation #include <stdio.h> main(){ char c; int key;**

printf("Input a key between 1 and 25: \n"); scanf("%d", &key); while ((c = getchar())!='*') { if ((c >= 'a' && c <= 'z') || (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z')) c = c + key; if (c > 'Z' && c <='Z'+key || c >'z') c = c - 26; } printf("%c",c);

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**Reading Data from a File**

#include <stdio.h> /* defines fopen, fclose, fscanf fprintf, and EOF */ int main(void) { FILE *inp; /* input file pointer */ int sum = 0, /* sum of scores input so far */ score, /* current score */ input_status; /* status value returned by fscanf */ inp = fopen("scores.dat", "r"); /* open a file for reading */ printf("Scores\n"); input_status = fscanf(inp, "%d", &score); /* read the first line from the file */ while (input_status != EOF) { /* if not the end of file sign */ printf("%5d\n", score); sum += score; input_status = fscanf(inp, "%d", &score); /* continue to read the next line */ } printf("\nSum of exam scores is %d\n", sum); fclose(inp); /* close the file */ Run by command line

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**Structure Chart for Computing Solar Collecting Area Size**

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**Program to Approximate Solar Collecting Area Size**

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**Program to Approximate Solar Collecting Area Size (cont’d)**

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**Program to Approximate Solar Collecting Area Size (cont’d)**

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