Principles of Heredity F2: 5474 round: 1850 wrinkled (3/4 round to 1/4 wrinkled) Mendel’s Experiment with Peas Round seed x Wrinkled seed F1: All round seed coats F1 round plants x F1 round plants
Principles of Heredity Mendel needed to explain 1.Why 1.Why one trait seemed to disappear in the first generation. 2. Why the same trait reappeared in the second generation in one-fourth of the offspring.
Principles of Heredity Mendel proposed: 1.Each 1.Each trait is governed by two factors – now called genes. 2. Genes are found in alternative forms called alleles. 3. Some alleles are dominant and mask alleles that are recessive.
Principles of Heredity HomozygousDominantHomozygousRecessive Heterozygous Mendel’s Experiment with Peas Round seed x Wrinkled seed Round seed x Wrinkled seed RR rr RR rr F1: All round seed coats Rr Rr
RRR R Homozygous parents can only pass one form of an allele to their offspring.
RrRr Heterozygous parents can pass either of two forms of an allele to their offspring.
Principles of Heredity Additional Genetic Terms Genotype: alleles carried by an individual eg. RR, Rr, rr Phenotype: physical characteristic or appearance of an individual eg. Round, wrinkled eg. Round, wrinkled
Mendel’s Principle of Genetic Segregation In the formation of gametes, the members of a pair of alleles separate separate (or segregate) cleanly from each other so that only one member is included in each gamete. Each gamete has an equal probability of containing either member of the allele pair.
Genetic Segregation Parentals: RR x rr F1 x F1: Rr x Rr
What Is a Gene? Agene is a segment of DNA that directs the synthesis of a specific protein. DNADNA is transcribed into RNA which is translated into protein.
Molecular Basis for Dominant and Recessive Alleles Dominant Allele Codes for a functional protein Recessive Allele Codes for a non- functional protein or prevents any protein product from forming
Principles of Heredity Mendel’s Experiment with Peas Round Yellow x Wrinkled Green F1: All round yellow seed coats F2: 315 round, yellow 9/16 108 round, green 3/16 101 wrinkled, yellow 3/16 32 wrinkled, green 1/16 F2: 315 round, yellow 9/16 108 round, green 3/16 101 wrinkled, yellow 3/16 32 wrinkled, green 1/16 F1 plants x F1 plants
Principles of Heredity Mendel needed to explain 1.Why 1.Why non-parental combinations appeared in the F2 offspring. 2. Why the ratio of phenotypes in the F2 generation was 9:3:3:1.
Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment When gametes are formed, the alleles of one gene segregate independently of the alleles of another gene gene producing equal proportions of all possible gamete types.
Genetic Segregation + Independent Assortment Parentals: Parentals: RRYY x rryy RRYY x rryy F1:
Solving Genetics Problems 1.Convert 1.Convert parental phenotypes to genotypes 2.Use 2.Use Punnett Square to determine genotypes of offspring 3.Convert 3.Convert offspring genotypes to phenotypes
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 1. Probability (P) of an event (E) occurring: P(E) = Number of ways that event E can occur Total number of possible outcomes
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 2. Addition Rule of Probability – used in an “either/or” situation P(E 1 P(E 1 or E 2 ) E 2 ) = P(E 1 ) P(E 1 ) + P(E 2 )
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 3. Multiplication Rule of Probability – used in an “and” situation P(E 1 P(E 1 and E 2 ) E 2 ) = P(E 1 ) P(E 1 ) X P(E 2 )
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 4. Conditional Probability: Calculating Calculating the probability that each individual has a particular genotype Eg. Jack and Jill do not have PKU. Each has a sibling with the disease. What is the probability that Jack and Jill will have a child with PKU?
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 4. Conditional Probability
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 4. Conditional Probability P(child with PKU)= P(child without PKU)=
JackJill P_ child Probability Total=8/9 To calculate probability of child without PKU, look at all possibilities for Jack and Jill.
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 5. Ordered Events: use Multiplication Rule 5. Ordered Events: use Multiplication Rule For Jack and Jill, what is the probability that the first child will have PKU, the second child will not have PKU and the third child will have PKU?
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 6. Binomial Rule of Probability – used for unordered events a = probability of event X (occurrence of one event) b = probability of event Y = 1-a (occurrence of alternate event) n = total s = number of times event X occurs t = number of times event Y occurs (s + t = n) P = n! (a s b t ) s! t!
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 6. Binomial Rule of Probability ! = factorial= number multiplied by each lower number until reaching 1 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 1! =1 3! = 3 x 2 x 1 = 3 x 2! 0! = 1 2! = 2 x 1
Using Probability in Genetic Analysis 6. Binomial Rule of Probability Out of 3 children born to Jack and Jill, what is the probability that 2 will have PKU?
The same result can be obtained using the multiplicative rule if all possible birth orders for families of three are considered: 1 st child 2 nd child 3 rd child Probability
Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test To evaluate how well data fits an expected genetic ratio
Chi-square Test for Goodness of Fit for 9:3:3:1 Ratio Phenotype Observed Number ExpectedNumber (Fraction x Total) O-E (O-E) 2 E E Round, yellow 315 Round, green 108 Wrinkled, yellow 101 Wrinkled, green 32 Total556 df=degrees of freedom= number of phenotypes – 1 = 4-1=3 p value from table on page 1-17: from table in Pierce: Data supports hypothesis for any p>0.05