Presentation on theme: "T HE CONSERVATION PLAN T HE P EOPLE ’ S D EMOCRATIC R EPUBLIC OF A LGERIA M OUHAMED B ENTEFTIFA HIGH SCHOOL M EMBERS OF THE GROUP : T OUAIBIA I MEN M."— Presentation transcript:
T HE CONSERVATION PLAN T HE P EOPLE ’ S D EMOCRATIC R EPUBLIC OF A LGERIA M OUHAMED B ENTEFTIFA HIGH SCHOOL M EMBERS OF THE GROUP : T OUAIBIA I MEN M OKDAD I BTISSEM B OUMEDIEN H ADJER O TMANE T OLBA K AOUTAR R OUMAISSA D IRECTED BY : M ER : R AHALI Y EAR : 2AS 2 2010-2011
SOIL 1.soil conservation: Algeria is lightly forested with less than 2 % of its area covered by either forest or other wooded land. All of the country´s forest and arable land is in a broad coastal strip, around 400 kilometres wide. The rest of Algeria is Saharan with vegetation comprising sparse Acacia spp. and desert grasses. Northern Algeria has been extensively deforested, with around half the country´s forest area being cleared between 1935 and 1962. The country´s high forests comprise remnant stands of mainly Pinus, Quercus and Cedrus species, mainly on the slopes of the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas. Other forested areas include large tracts of Marquis scrub. Algeria has established an extensive tract of plantation forests as part of its "Green Dam" project to protect against desertification. The plan requires the eventual establishment of a 3 million hectare band of plantations as a barrier to the Sahara. Pinus halipensis is presently the most common species planted. Algeria has an extensive protected area system including 10 national parks. Around 4 % of the country´s forests are inside protected areas. 1
2. The green dam : In many African countries, the people are struggling against desertification.The Algerian Government once thought of facing the problem squarely, building a “Green dam". 12 million trees were planted in an attempt to stop the Sahara Desert from marching on. Yet, the desert won the match. 2 A Tuareg legend says the Sahara is like a sleeping giant, who,when it wakes up and looks at you, instantly burns you down to ashes. The Sahara woke up, moved around the obstacle and went on,leaving behind the “Green dam" dry and dead. So Algeria was left with the Atlantis Valley, that used to be the tree granary of the nation, as a vast expanse of barren land. Millions of people were left homeless, landless, without any means of livelihood. Programme, 67 million people in North Africa and 145 million in the Sahel are severely affected by desertification. This means that more than 200 million people are now forced to move towards the areas with enough water to sustain their lives. In this way, the long-held equilibrium between nomadic and sedentary people is lost, and as a consequence social tensions are building up.
WATER Algeria is one of a number of African nations Johns Hopkins University predicts to have a ratio of water annually available per person at less than 1,000 m3 in 2025, a daunting figure when experts consider a country "water-stressed" at below 1,700 m3 available per person. Although government officials are working with international experts to increase water supplies to both rural and urban areas the task remains difficult. "There are many construction sites that need to be opened in the water supply sector because our natural resources are not sufficient," says Water Resources Minister "We are obliged to appeal to foreign companies as much for material needs as for a desire to master new technologies." Government officials are in a race against time to maximize the already scant water resources. Around 1.5million dinars are earmarked by the Algerian government to improve hydro-infrastructures. Building new dams, reducing dam silting, used-water treatments, preventing water loss and waste and desalinization projects are some the efforts underway. 3
4 Federation's Francesca Antonelli, adding that Algeria is a North African leader in wetland conservation. Involvement in Algerian water management is not just restricted to international corporations and global conservation organizations, individuals are also making a positive impact. Speaking about the future of the water situation in Algeria, National Agency for Dams general director Abdelnaceur Kalli is very positive. "I am very optimistic about the next ten years because, compared to the past we will be in a very good position“. On the coasts, about 50 desalinization facilities are under construction to supply water. The minister says the process is one of the major alternative technologies being utilized by Algeria because dams are only sufficient to keep shortages at current levels. As many as 50 dams and other water-containing structures are also under construction to meet the Ministry of Water's goal of 12 billion m3 of water collected annually by Algeria. Currently, only 5 billion m3 are collected annually. Years of drought have depleted ground water supplies and dam reserves. Additionally, Algeria suffers from substandard management of water utilities and other existing networks. In order to manage all the hydraulic sector construction, two government agencies were created. Goals of the agencies include fostering annual and multi-annual investment programmes and undertaking projects through concessions or any form of partnership “This is exciting news for freshwater conservation in the region", says World Wildlife
W ILD LIFE AND OPEN SPACES Algeria also has few panther, leopard and cheetah populations but these are seldom seen. Barbary macaques and a variety of other bird species make the country an attraction for bird watchers. Snakes, monitor lizards, and numerous other reptiles can be found living among an array of rodents throughout the semi arid regions of Algeria Wildlife in Algeria is exotic and varied. The diverse forms of vegetation are conducive to the growth and development of a variety of Wildlife in Algeria in Africa. Coastal, mountainous and grassy desert-like areas ter exotic Wildlife in Algeria. You can catch amazing glimpses of the Algeria wildlife on extensive wildlife Algeria tours. Some of the other exotic species includeChalcides mauritanicus, Chalcides minutus, Golden Jackal, Marsh Mongoose And Red Fox to name a few. 5 The wildlife of Algeria includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. The varied vegetation of Algeria includes coastal, mountainous and grassy desert-like regions which all support a wide range of wildlife. Many of the creatures comprising the Algerian wildlife live in close proximity to civilisation. The most commonly seen animals include the wild: boars, jackals, and gazelles, although it is not common to spot fennecs, (foxes), and jerboas.
Wildlife in Algeria includes a variety of endangered species. These rare animals are well preserved under the Algerian law. The most endangered animals feature the serval. A little smaller than a leopard, the serval has long and elegant ears and belongs to the cat family,and its coat is characterized by leopard-like spots. These lovely animals are still found in the northern parts of Algeria, though much lesser in number. The Mediterranean monk seal is another popular name amongst the endangered species in Algeria. These seals dwell in caves and along the coast of Algeria. Over-fishing and pollution have led to the diminishing number of these lovely animals. Algerian wild dogs and a number of bat species are also regarded as some of the most endangered species. Algerian wildlife protection programs are organized with the aim of promoting and preserving the Wildlife in Algeria. Another creature that is endangered in Algeria is the Mediterranean monk seal. These seals live in caves and in rocky outcrops along the coast of Algeria and their numbers have been made scarce by over-fishing and pollution. Monk seals do not give birth often and usually have only one pup, which means attempts to increase the seal population are slow and difficult. Besides the Golden jackal(Barbary Lion) wich hasn’t been seen in Algeria since 1922. 6
Conservation of open spaces and forests: Algeria has so many open spaces and forests such as : Belzma National Park The Belzma National Park is one of the most important national parks of Algeria. It is located in Batna Province. Created in 1984, it stretches over an area of 262.5 km², the climate ranges from a cool subhumid climate to a dry semi-arid climate, it contains 447 species of flora (14% of the national total) and 309 species of fauna, of which 59 are protected species. Chréa National Park The Chréa National Park is one of the smallest national parks of Algeria. It is located in Blida Province, named after Chréa, a town near this park. The park, located in a mountainous area known as the Blidean Atlas (which is part of the Tell Atlas) includes the ski station of Chréa, one of the few ski stations in Africa where skiing can be done on real snow, and the grotto of Chiffa. It is home to a varied flora and fauna, including its old Atlas Cedar forests, where many Barbary Macaques live..Djurdjura National Park The national park of Djurdjura is one of the national parks of Algeria. It is located in Kabylia, named after the Djurdjura mountain chain. Nearby cities include Tizi Ouzou (to the north) and Bouïra (to the south). The park is home to a very broken tectonics, as well as many forests, grottoes, gorges, and an important fauna. El Kala National Park The national park of El Kala is one of the national parks of Algeria, in the extreme north-east of the country. It is home to several lakes and a unique ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin, it was created in 1983 and recognized as a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 1990. This park is treatened by the creation of a highway in Algeria, which would treathen the rare animals and plants of the park. It has been proposed that the highway should avoid this region and go further south. 7
M ONUMENTS The General Command of the Algerian National Gendarmerie program information Introduced to the protection of monuments and historical legacies in Algeria,such as: The Casbah is specifically the citadel of Algiers and the traditional quarter clustered round it. More generally, Casbah denotes the walled citadel of many North African cities and towns. The word made its way into English from French in the late 19th century In Rabat, the capital of Morocco since 1912, the Casbah of the Oudaya is the military barracks encircled by walls with gates, built in the 16th and 17th centuries on ancient foundations. The Casbah of Algiers is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two: the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the Dey Baba Hassan) flanked of two minarets, mosque el Djedid (1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir (oldest of the mosques, it was built by almoravide Youssef Ibn Tachfin and rebuilt later in 1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of Jénina. To outsiders, the Casbah appears to be a confusing labyrinth of lanes and dead-end alleys flanked by picturesque houses; however if one loses oneself there, it is enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself. It's considered as a world heritage by the UNESCO.This precious heritage is threatened of falling apart and the algerian government is now looking for solutions to forbid that from happening. 8
M INERAL R ESOURCES Algeria's nonfuel minerals were used extensively as raw material for domestic manufacturing, but some, such as high-grade iron ore, phosphate, mercury, and zinc, have also been exported since the early 1970s. The state mining and prospecting corporation, the National Company for Mineral Research and Exploration (Société Nationale de Recherches et d'Exploitations Minières), was established in 1967. As a result of the government's decentralization policy, the company was restructured in 1983 into separate production and distribution entities. The most important of these were an iron ore and phosphate company known as “Ferphos”, which had three production units and a port complex at Annaba, and another company called Erem that specialized in conducting mineral research at Boumerdas on the Mediterranean Sea and Tamanrasset in the south. Iron ore is found at Beni Saf in the northwest and the Ouenza and Bou Khadra region near the eastern border. Production levels have tended to vary significantly over the years, fluctuating between 1 million and 2 million tons between the early 1970s and the early 1990s. The deposits at Ouenza represent 75 percent of total production and have been exported primarily to Italy and Britain. 9
However, there are massive reserves of medium-grade ore at Gara Djebilet, near Tindouf in the west. These deposits of an estimated 2,000 million tons of medium- grade ore have been said to be the largest in the Arab world. The most significant zinc deposits have been found at the mountain of El Abed near the Algerian-Moroccan border and at Kherzet-Youssef in the Sétif region. Lead is also mined at El Abed and Kherzet-Youssef. 10 The large phosphate deposits at Djebel Onk in the northeast have been mined since the early 1960s; phosphate rock output reached 1.3 million tons in 1988. The total was almost evenly divided between export (primarily to France and Spain) and local consumption or processing at the Annaba fertilizer plant, approximately 350 kilometers away. Most major mines are linked by rail to Algeria's ports. Djebel Onk phosphate mines near the Tunisian border, as well as the Ouenza iron ore mines, are linked by electric rail line to Annaba. Zinc and lead mines at El Abed near the Moroccan border in the west are linked to Oran.
H EALTH Health in Algeria, according to information from a March 6, 2006 United States report, does not compare well with the developed world. Algeria has inadequate numbers of physicians (one per 1,000 people) and hospital beds (2.1 per 1,000 people) and poor access to water (87 % of the population) and sanitation (92 % of the population). Given Algeria’s young population, policy favors preventive health care and clinics over hospitals. In keeping with this policy, the government maintains an immunization program. However, poor sanitation and unclean water still cause tuberculosis, hepatitis, measles, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. In 2003 about 0.10 % of the population aged between 15–49 was living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The poor generally receive health care free of charge, but the wealthy pay for care according to a sliding scale. Access to health care is enhanced by the requirement that doctors and dentists work in public health for at least five years. However, doctors are more easily found in the cities of the north than in the southern Sahara region. 11 Algeria long enjoyed a well-run health care system, which was free of charge for its users. This system, one of the most impressive in the third world, faced economic and administrative problems in the late 1980s. The Islamist groups quickly built up a competing and far more effective system. This was one of the reasons for the fast-growing popularity of the Islamists in this decade. Algeria has one doctor for each 1,200 inhabitants.
E DUCATION The educational system of Algeria has mostly been of good quality, and has been going through a process of Arabization starting with independence in 1962. Schooling is compulsory, lasts 9 years, and is attended by almost all Algerian children (primary: 97% of boys, 91% of girls). Education in Algeria is free and officially compulsory for Algerians up to age 16, but actual enrollment falls far short of 100 %. Enrollment drops off sharply from primary to secondary school. In fact, only about half the eligible population is enrolled in secondary school, which consists of two three-year cycles beginning at age 12 In addition, Algeria has 10 universities, seven university centers (centres universitaires), and several technical colleges with about 350,000 students (figures are from 1995/6, no new ones as of 2005). The primary of school instruction is Arabic, but Berber instruction has been permitted since 2003, in part to ease reliance on foreign teachers but also in response to complaints about Arabization. As of 2008, Algeria's literacy rate is 69–70 %, higher than those of Morocco and Egypt but subpar by international standards The breakdown by gender is 79 % for males and 61 % for females. A lag persists for women despite progress since independence in 1962. Education consumes one-quarter of the national budget. Algeria faces a shortage of teachers as a result of the doubling in the number of eligible children and young adults in the last 12 years. 12
C ULTURE Algeria’s culture is strongly influenced by its religion, Islam, although in the past it was mainly influenced by the French culture. 13 Hospitality is part of the culture of Algeria as it is in the rest of the Arab world;women must cover their heads and bodies.In the main cities of Algeria people are used to the Western culture, but in the south and rural areas the follow more traditional practices. Items that are mostly sold in Algeria are Berber rugs, Sahara fabrics, traditional pottery, jewelry, copper and the traditional clothing of the country.The most important library in Algeria is the National Library founded in 1835 in the city of Algires. In the capital you will find the Museums of Prehistory and Ethnography, the National Archeological Museum and the National Museum of Fine Arts.
E CONOMY The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues 25% of GDP and almost all export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989 the government launched a comprehensive IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993 a new government was formed and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility. Progress on economic reform a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995 and oil and gas sector expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely to maintain growth and export earnings. Continuing but gradual government efforts to attract foreign and domestic investment outside that sector seek to diversify the economy and tackle problems of high unemployment and falling living standards problems as yet untouched by the macroeconomic turnaround. 14
T HE A LGERIA ’ S WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS 15 Economic development contributes to improvements in life standards. However, it also induces environment degradation with long-term consequences for both people and nature. Eradicating poverty and reaching desirable levels of economic and industrial development seem to conflict with environmental considerations. The real problem, however, is the lack or inadequate level of environment management at a town level. The industrialization of Algeria improved socio-economic conditions but triggered a massive urban drift towards towns. This phenomenon led to urban anarchy and an increase in MSW production. It is known that waste is not a threat to the environment if carefully collected and treated. However, it is clear that poor MSW disposal and management systems are direct threats to nature and health. In industrialized countries, MSW management is an important and competitive economic activity. However, in Algeria (31.5 million inhabitants in 2002 with annual growth rate of 2%), the problem is far from resolved if compared to other developing countries. The present difficulties are mainly due to a lack of organization, methodology, education and information.The absence of MSW treatment infrastructure and experts make it difficult to manage an increasing amount of industrial and municipal waste. In the last three decades, the economic and social development of Algeria did not take into account the protection of the citizen and the environment. Nearly 325,100 tons of special industrial wastes.
16 (Asbestos, pesticides, mercury, cyanide, expired pharmaceutical products) are produced in Algeria each year. Special industrial wastes are generated by four sectors: hydrocarbons (34%), chemistry, rubber and plastic (23%), metallurgy (16%) and mines (13%). Packaging represents a major portion of waste up to 200,000 tons per year. Almost all (95%) packaging is made from plastic, with 5% made from metal, while only 0.02% is recycled. Healthcare wastes reach 125,000 tons per year, of which 53.6% is general waste, 17.6% is infectious waste, 23.2% is toxic waste and 5.6% is special waste. Each year, Algeria produces 8.5 million tons of MSW, a rate of 0.9 kg/inhabitant/day for urban zones and 0.6 kg/inhabitant/day for rural zones. Waste disposal reaches 92% in urban zones and 65% in rural zones. It should be noted that 96.8% of Algerian MSW is dumped openly. Only 2% of waste is recycled, 1% is used as compost and 0.2% is disposed in landfills. There are 3000 open dumpsites in Algeria. There are 350 sites located near big cities, which represent a surface area of 150,000 ha. Usually, these sites are close to agricultural facilities or rivers.With the current MSW management system in Mostaganem city, all of the collected MSW is disposed of in open dumpsites in the nearest available low lying areas and wastelands of the city’s outskirts. Selection of these disposal sites solely depends on availability, and not on scientific or socio-environmental landfill criteria. MSW is disposed of in an uncontrolled manner and daily cover material is not applied regularly. Recently, the Algerian government decided to create 65 sanitary landfill sites, resulting in the reorganisation and update of the waste disposal system (including compost and methane production from organic waste and incineration).
17 Comparison of Algerian cities: The results from the comparison of Algerian cities are shown in the chart bar below (ANAT, 2001). In all Algerian cities, organic matter is the most predominant waste category. In littoral cities (Mostaganem, Bejaia and Annaba), the level of organic matter varied between 64.6% and 69.4%. However, this level increased in cities far from the sea, such as Tlemcen (71%) and Djelfa (83.5%). Mostaganem, a northern city, is characterized by a high level of paper (15.9%) due to the existence of a paper factory in the area. However Djelfa, a southern town, produces a much smaller amount of paper-cardboard (7.9%). This is because life styles in the north and the south of the country are different and southern people use less packaging and newspaper. Bejaia is characterized by a high level of plastics (12.3%), due to the existence of a plastic factory in the region. Similar to the results for paper waste, Djelfa has a low level of plastic (2.4%) for the same reasons mentioned above. Metals, glass and textiles vary from 3% to 1% without major differences among cities.
A LGERIA CODE 18 ☼ ☼ Our forests must be protected ☼ ☼ Oil and gas ought be preserved,for us and for the next generations ☼ ☼ Human resources should be protected ☼ ☼ Animals mustn't be hunted “It’s forbidden” ☼ ☼ A culture of peace should be built,and that comes by being more tolerant ☼ ☼ Energy saving resources must be used ☼ ☼ Solar and air energies have to be used ☼ ☼ The problem of pollution have to be solved,by every one ☼ ☼ Monuments should be preserved ☼ ☼ Renewable resources such as wind and solar powers must be used in various projects ☼ ☼ Power plants have to be built in different localities in the country (specially in the south “Sahara”) ☼ ☼ Species in danger of extinction must be protected ☼ ☼ Cigarette smoking have to be banned ☼ ☼ Desertification should be stopped, as soon as possible ☼ ☼ Recyclable objects shouldn’t be thrown ☼ ☼ Conservation groups must be created in the country with the aim of solving it’s damages ☼ ☼ Green areas and forests mustn’t be replaced by urban areas ☼ ☼ Water uses have to be limited
O UR IDEAL TOWN So we hope that our ideal town must have fraiche air without any smokes, and a clear blue sky without clouds, and a shiny sun wich never goes, a green town : full of trees, plants, and many spaces that give people peacefull periouds of time, where employees find a freedom in busy days,and upsets remember sweet moments,when they face problems, were children have fun, and each mother get rid of her worried about her son… 19 We allways wich to live in an ideal town, a perfect one, where we ll never get sick because of the pollution or the bad climate. .. a town where we ll have a good health and a good mood.In condition that people living in it must respect some laws (those which are citing up before ) By building civilizations that permet them to live in harmony with nature… We always wich to have hospitales with a good occupation and confident doctors who do their job honnestly that people recover quickely,but with resonable prices …to have aminities every were in the town such as cinemas,sports centers and pleasent places where life would be easy and youth would be happy; a town without problemes or difficultys,controled by a legal president and a faithfull government who cares about his responsibilities, to have national companies that help the country’s economy, besides of business organizations selling goods or services that plan to build new factories and keep devloping the trade of the town.
20 We have a dreem that one day the education would be better : primary, secondary higher or adult one would have the best tools to deliver the information to students in schools where the care for the environment is educated and the busic concept of islem is teached…We realy hope that factories are built out of urban areas, were Algeria’s goods are made in large qualities,then are export to other countries …and like this our economy would evaluate step after an other …that our cultre would be protected and more museums would be built,conserving history,thus next generations know their past and their ancestor ‘s belifs,and have a knowledge of Algeria ‘s history. But to live in such ideal town,everyone should respect it’s laws,and obey it’s rules.