Presentation on theme: "Introduction of „ Kálmán impactor “ Kálmán System Ltd. 1125 Budapest, Trencséni u. 16."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction of „ Kálmán impactor “ Kálmán System Ltd Budapest, Trencséni u. 16.
1. Exchangeable entry nozzle in accordance with Annex E 2. Inlet cone in accordance with ISO 12141: PM10A nozzle plate 4. PM10B nozzle plate 5. PM2,5 A nozzle plate 6. PM2.5 B nozzle plate 7. Backup filter for the particle fraction smaller than 2,5 8. L Pitot Prandtl tube
Introduction 1 Annular slit nozzle, chamber cascade impactors were developed for emission and imission sampling of solid aerosol particles to offer an advanced technical solution as an alternative to multinozzle cascade impactors. Let me present –design –evaluation (characteristic curves) –application examples of the KS-220 and KS-222 cascade impactors which were developed further from the patented OH-610-B type cascade impactor to fulfill the requirements of the environmental protection regulations This design (about 30 years old) is an alternative to 70 years old multinozzle cascade impactor design.
Introduction 2 The KS-220 and KS-222 impactors are based on the double stages concept (where the two corresponding stages have the same characteristic curves), which ensures sharper collection efficiency curves and reduce the carry-over effect, and consist of new construction solutions. They are capable of gravimetric fractionation of PM10A/10B→PM2.5A/2.5B+optional PM1A/1B particles and require new evaluation methods. In order to increase the impaction efficiency and to decrease the size of the instrument the particles are accelerated to the necessary impaction speed through annular nozzles instead of the many small sized round nozzles. The impactors consist of well separated chamber like stages for weighing to decrease the reproduction error caused by the different adhesiveness of different particles. The outstanding advantage of the new type impactors is that - due to their relatively small size - they can be used “in-stack” in small size flue gas pipes. The KS-220 cascade impactor consists of a standard suction pipe, a diffuser inlet, two, or three consecutive double stages and a backup end filter. The KS-222 model was developed mainly for sampling in stacks with thick wall. Different catch plates can be used for different application requirements.
Key benefits Reproducible measurement results independently of the adhesiveness of the particles Continuous ring shape dust sample which is excellent for analytic purposes. More than 20 years experiences in measurements, 5 comparison studies in laboratory and in industrial tests with different methods. Different catch plates can be used for different application, like the electrostaticfiber diffused high capacity catch plates. The double stage design is a novelty which is used first in the KS-220 typeimpactor. These properties lead to increased dust holding capacity of the stages. Highly decreased the carry-over effect and the measurement error caused by the overload of the stages. The chamber like separation of the different stages enables the sampling for total dust measurement and for fraction analysis in the same time. The resistance of air is highly decreased due to the design of the carry overchambers and channels based on fluid dynamics. K=1, therefore real isokinetic sampling
Illustration of other impactor holding capacity problems...
Comparison of KS-220 cascade impactor and the one which is described in the ISO/CD standard
Application advantages The annular slit nozzle, chamber like construction highly decreased the main sizes of the impactor Outstanding feature is that the new construction fits “in stack” in flue-gas pipes with small diameter and plate or brickset wall. Further outstanding feature is the applied standard L Pitot/Prandtl probe for the measurement of the reference gas velocity with K=1 characteristics which is independent of the Reynolds number and the drifts. The L Pitot/Prandtl probe was certified with a wind tunnel based on the ISO standard. The impactor stages can be changed on the measurement site. The cleaning of the parts separated into chambers and the test of the nozzle sizes are easy and do not require special tools. The KS-220 measuring circuit fulfils the MSZ EN 13284, MSZ ISO 9096 international environmental protection regulations Automatic isokinetic sampling, measurement control, evaluation with KS-400- CUV.15/8 measuring and control unit, with software running under Windows XP.
Technical description 1 The KS-220 cascade impactor consists of a standard suction inlet, a diffuser, two, optionally three consecutive double stages and a backup filter. Pictures illustrate the advantages of the new construction based on the volume/weight/size ratio.
Nominal flow rate of the gas going through the sampler: qN = 1,5 [m³/h] Ro1=1,18 [kg/m³] gas density qmin = 1,0 [m³/h] qmax = 2,6 [m³/h] Back up filter: Ø 43 [mm] Impactor weight: 0,44 kg Dust holding capacity: Dust holding capacity highly depends on the fraction distribution of the dust, on the density and on the applied catch plates. The dust holding capacity of the catch plates is in the range of Gmax= [mg], but in case of electrostatic fiber diffused catch plates it is several times higher than for other filter materials. Technical description 2
Verification Five tests were performed to determine the characteristic curves, cut-off sizes and to evaluate the annular slit nozzle chamber like cascade impactors. Using this arrangement we performed three times emission measurements and two times long term immission measurements. Based on these measurements we determined the characteristic curves which are the most important parameters of the impactors. The measurement method and the results are the following:
Measurement site, measurement conditions One of the measurements were carried out in a lignite firing furnace, four times: t =130 °C average temperature flue-gas pipe after the electro filter fixed isokinetic sampling were selected at one point, and hardly changing w1= 9,2-10,6 [m/s] gas velocity 36 [mg/m3] dust concentration were determined
The impacted particles from the catch plates were transferred to a sterile glass plate and then to a JEOL JSM-50A scanning electron microscope. 3000x, 7000x and 12500x magnification were used according to the particle sizes on the different stages and the backup filter. The pictures were evaluated by photometric method. Most of the particles were spherical so it gave satisfactory results to build the gravimetric residue curve. A recorded image and a typical continuous ring shape dust image can be seen: The densities of the particles were estimated by the determination of the composition of several 5 [μm] size particles with ORTEC energy dispersive system. The average particle density was found to be Rop= 2,18 [g/cm3].
Typical continuous ring shape dust image on the filters of the different stages The densities of the particles were estimated by the determination of the composition of several 5 [μm] size particles with ORTEC energy dispersive system. The average particle density was found to be Rop= 2,18 [g/cm3].
Characteristic curves of the double stages of the KS- 220 cascade impactor Calibration of the impactor showed sharp characteristic curves. The cut-off sizes of the different double stages are close to the values predicted by impactor theory. shows the characteristic curves of the double stages of the KS-220 cascade impactor.
Comparative study of the MARK III and the KS-220 cascade impactors Annular slit nozzle chamber like cascade impactors were used many times for particle fraction composition measurements of point sources, e.g.: after the wet separator of special refuse burner after the surface filter dust separator of cement production in the high chimneys of gas- fired and coal fired power plants, technological investigation of gas-turbines development of dust separators, development of special furnaces
Application examples in horizontal and vertical arrangements
Conclusions The KS-220 cascade impactor performance fulfils industrial precision requirements and gives satisfactory repeatability under even severe field conditions and show consistent results in comparison with other systems. It was used in cement plants, ferrous, non-ferrous foundry furnaces, EAF (electric arc furnace) steelworks, biomass-/coal- fired boilers, and incineration / co-incineration plants. The new family of the annular slit nozzle chamber like cascade impactors with the electronically controlled measuring circuit have many advantages over the known cascade impactors, like smaller size and advantageous technical parameters. It opens new application possibilities, and provides more reliable total dust measurements and fraction analysis.
Kálmán references 1 1. KERNKRAFTWERK Stade (Nuclear Power Plant, Stade) FRG 2. Universität Essen Fachbereich 13 (University of Essen, Faculty 13) FRG 3. MÜLLER - BBM GmbH, München Planegg FRG 4. National Center for Hygiene and Environment, Reykjavik Iceland 5. ECO Monitoring, Bratislava Slovakia 6. LABEN LTD, Milano Italy 7. KERNFORSCHUNGSZENTRUM, Karlsruhe (Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe) FRG 8. ESSO AG, Hamburg FRG 9. ENCO Ltd, Athen Greece 10. KWU Siemens, Erlangen FRG 12. YSSELBACH, Wien Austria 12. Universität Stuttgart, Ins. f. Werkzeugmasch. (University of Stuttgart) FRG 13. DETIA Freyburg GmbH, Laudenbach FRG 14. VOLKSWAGEN AG, Wolfsburg FRG 15. Carl Freudenberg, Weinheim FRG 16. Dr F. Sporenberg GmbH, Bochum FRG 17. Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Ruhr University, Bochum) FRG 18. Hugo Peterson GmbH, Wiesbaden FRG
19. Fachhochschule, Trier (College, Trier) FRG 20. BURGER AG., Bern-Boligen Switzerland 21. SANDOS, Basel Switzerland 22. HILTI AG, Vaduz Lichtenstein 23. Hoffmann La Roche SA, Basel Switzerland 24. BASE Zeiss Gruppe, Kiel FRG 25. PHARE Project 101/B and 606, Brüssel Belgien 26. SOCIÉTÉ FRANCAISE D' INGÉNIERIE Marseille FR 27. DRÄGER Werk AG, Zürich Switzerland 28. Bayerische Ray Wärmetechnik Bayern, Aufkirchen FRG 29. SERES LTD, AIX IN PROVENCE FR 30. PHARE Project /L9 Brüssel Belgien 31. OSRAM, München FRG 32. EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Dübendorf Switzerland 33. Universität Bilbao Prof. Estíbaliz García Ruiz Spain 34. TOMEN CORPORATION Group No.3 Industrial Machinery Dept. III, TOKYO JAPAN Kálmán references 2
35. Amt für Umweltschutz Graubünden Switzerland 36. Gesellschaft für Schadstoffmesstechnik GmbH, Neuss FRG 37. ECM TEHNOINSTRUMENT s.r.l. Ploiesti Rumenian 38. Bayer AG, Dormagen FRG 39. ECM Latvija PHARE Latvija 40. ECM Dobra PHARE Czech Rep. 41. Volkswagen AG. Wolfsburg FRG 42. Universita Degli Studi Di Lecce Italy 43. U.S. Steel Kosice s.r.o. Slovakia 44. Camberra Packard GmbH. Austria 45. Enofis Ltd. A.Ovecler Ankara Turkey 46. TFZ Technologie und Förderzentrum Nachwachsende Rohstoffe Straubing FRG Kálmán references 3
Literature István Kálmán: Development results and operation experiments gained by using impaktor with circular gap shaped nozzle. Research Institute for Iron Industry, H-Budapest Aerosols in Science September 1981, Duisburg, Germany Friedhelm Sporenberg: Comparative analysis performed on Andersen type impaktor and that of circular shaped nozzles. University of Essen F. Sporenberg, G. Ruther, E. Weber: Collection characteristics of inertial impaktor. The Tenth Annual Conference of the Association Aerosol Res I. Kálmán, Cs. Kálmán, W. Burger: Seminar für Emissionsmessungen von Stäuben, Aerosolen und Schwermetallen CH-Egerkingen, I. Kálmán, Cs. Kálmán, P. Zombori, T. Cziczó: High Volume Airborne Particle Sampler for Environmental Monitoring with Built-in PM 2-10 Pre-separator Installed in Containers. International Environmental Technology P M. Óvári: Speciation of nickel and vanadium in airborne dust. 26th ISEAC ( Intern. Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry ), A-Wien, M. Óvári: Speciation of nickel and vanadium in airborne dust. Eu. Research Course on Atmospheres. Fr-Grenoble W. Burger: Staub und Aerosole belasten Mensch und Umwelt. Wasser Boden Luft UMWELTSCHUTZ 12/1998 Á. Mészáros, I. Kálmán: The application of PM2 preseparation impactor for high volume flow dust sampling. Science of Hygiene 44., (2000) S. Kapitány, I. Kálmán: Measured radioaktivity of PM10/PM2,5 airborne dust pollution in the vicinity of „Püspökszilágy” radioaktive waste depository. Journal of Aerosol Science EAC 2004 S
Thank you for your attention and my proposal is not to exclude annular slit design impactor from ISO/DIS other reference documents on your CDs