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Cuba Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Assessment Committee Water and Wastewater Priorities and Cost-Benefit Considerations: A “Work-In-Progress” To: Association.

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Presentation on theme: "Cuba Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Assessment Committee Water and Wastewater Priorities and Cost-Benefit Considerations: A “Work-In-Progress” To: Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cuba Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Assessment Committee Water and Wastewater Priorities and Cost-Benefit Considerations: A “Work-In-Progress” To: Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (A.S.C.E.) Miami, Florida August 1, 2009 By: Armando I. Perez, Roberto Cardona, Luis Locay and Helena Solo-Gabriele

2 Disclaimer The opinions expressed in this presentation are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of their employers or of their sponsoring engineering societies. Authors’ knowledge of Cuba is based on limited information available mostly on the Internet and personal communication with Cubans now living in Florida.

3 Outline of Presentation
“Big Picture” water resources issues Eight (8) Priority watersheds Almendares/vento watershed issues Protection of water sources from wastewater Treatment and distribution of potable water Cotorro case study: cost-benefit considerations Conclusions

4 Source Water Total water use (potential $1 to 4 billion/yr industry)
5.2 billion m3 (Cereijo ed. 1992) 1.6 billion m3/yr (11.5 M people at 100 gpd) 64% groundwater (Cereijo ed. 1992) Groundwater predominates in western provinces, surface water in eastern provinces Susceptible to saltwater intrusion Use approaching “safe yield” (sustainable supply)

5 Eight (8) Watersheds of National Interest
15 % of Cuba’ Surface 40 % of Cuba’s Population 60% of Cuba’s Fundamental Economic Activity 11 Provinces (Some Straddling) 6 Have Watershed Councils (Handle Straddles) Source: Jorge Mario Garcia Fernández (Director Watershed INRH), “Cuban Experiences in the Institutionalization of Integrated Management of Watersheds, “Voluntad Hidráulica (INRH Journal), No. 98, pp 15-28

6 Ariguanabo (90K): Contamination of Rivers (connection to groundwater supply). Deforestation. Poor drainage. Almendares-Vento (570K): Contamination of Almendares River (connection to groundwater supply). Erosion 1420 /km2 480 /km2 175 /km2 122 /km2 Toa (12K): Ecological diversity. Contamination (29 sources). Deforestation. Erosion Cuyaguateje (40K): Poor drainage, salt water intrusion. Erosion Hanabanilla (7K): Erosion Zaza (264K): Contamination (94 sources). Deforestation. Erosion Cauto (1,170K): Contamination (652 sources). Poor drainage. Erosion Guantanamo-Guaso (410K): Drought. Salt accumulation

7 Identify/ Protect Water Source
Hierarchical Approach to Water Management Cycle Treatment and Distribution Protect Water Source Potable Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Treatment Effluent Disposal Identify/ Protect Water Source Treat Water to Prevent acute illness long-term illness and improve aesthetics

8 Source Water: Almendares-Vento
Vento Aquifer serves 47% of Havana Population Located directly beneath the Almendares River ALMENDARES RIVER VENTO AQUIFER RESERVOIR

9 Major Contaminant Sources
Papelera Nacional Cubana Near Puentes Grandes Almendares River Vento Aquifer Reservoir

10 Sanitary Sewer Networks
Alamar (96K) No Treatment Cotorro (20K -75K) Lower Almendares (103K) Maria del Carmen (23K) Primary and Secondary Central (945K) Primary Puentes Grandes ?(200K) San Pedro Pump Station 1946, Sewer Construction U.Miami Photo Archive Planta Quibu, Cubagua 2007

11 Wastewater Priorities
Central (945K) Primary Rehabilitate & Expand Sewer Lines San Pedro Pump, 2008 Investigate Puentes Grandes and Lower Almendares Networks Investigate Industry Pre-Treatment Repair and Expand Cotorro WW(75K) Domestic + Industrial San Pedro Pump Station, 2008 Maria del Carmen (23K 73K) Primary and Secondary Repair and Expand Calle 100 Landfill BMP Agriculture Antillana de Acero

12 Water Rations (Perez Martinez 2003) Water Distribution Map
Central (817K) 5,2 m3/d West (447K) 3.3 m3/d South (370K) 2.0 m3/d East (546K) 5,0 m3/d Water Rations (Perez Martinez 2003) Water Distribution Map for Havana, 1899

13 Water Priorities Repair Chlorine Production Facility at Sagua la Grande Trucks/fuel to transport chlorine Repair leaks in transmission and distribution system. Adding valves and metering Improve interconnectedness of the networks. Back up electricity and pumps (with surge suppressors). Repair chlorination equipment.

14 Background: Cotorro, Cuba
~ 50% of land used for agriculture Approximate land area is 65.7 km2 The town's population comprises approximately 74,500 inhabitants 14

15 Location Of Proposed Wastewater Plant For Cotorro
San Pedro Pump Station

16 4 Phase Design for Cotorro WWTP
Repair Pump Station Phase 2 Screening Grit Removal Sedimentation Disinfection Phase 3 Biological Treatment Phase 4 Tertiary Treatment $2.3 Million For selection of treatment processes looked at tropical islands with similar weather patterns We used Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority Rules and regulation for design standards Phase I: Preliminary, Primary Treatment and Disinfection The construction of preliminary and primary treatment processes for the proposed Wastewater Treatment Plant, as well as disinfection. The sludge treatment processes will also be included in this phase. Phase II: Secondary treatment The addition of biological treatment to the plant for further biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal so that the effluent water meets the national total suspended solids (TSS) and BOD discharge standards, and the necessary characteristics for future nutrient removal. Phase III: Tertiary Treatment- Nutrient Removal Tertiary treatment addition to the wastewater treatment plant so that the highest effluent quality standards are met. This additional treatment is recognized as a very futuristic plan. $24 Million $18 Million $3 Million

17 Top View Schematic of Cotorro Plant
Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4

18 Cotorro Wastewater Costs and Benefits
Alternative Description Cost (U.S. $) Benefit to San Francisco River Benefit to Cojimar River Comments A No action (discharge without treatment to San Francisco River) $ 0 (but cost of alternative supply high) Status quo: threat to drinking water and ecology N/A Not acceptable B Diversion to Cojimar River without treatment $ 2.3 M ($330K for electric controls) Removal of public health threat Impairment: threaten even Class “C” uses (transit and irrigation), against “environmental justice” (dumping) C Diverison with Primary Treatment $ 26 M Impairment: may not meet Class “C” uses, against environmental justice Acceptability questionable D Diversion with Secondary Treatment $ 44 M Allow Class “B” uses: transit, irrigation, consumption of raw products, recreation Acceptable E Diversion with Tertiary Treatment $ 47 M Allow Class “A” uses: Class “B” uses plus public water supply, industrial use for food processing

19 Methodologies for Incremental Benefits to San Francisco River/Vento Aquifer Watershed
Methodology Data Needed Removal of public health threat (value of work productivity loss avoided in “nuisance” case). Productivity loss avoided = average income*average work days*percent work days missed*area population*percent of population in work force (a) Income Work days per year Percent work days missed (from survey of experts) Area population served by Vento Aquifer Percent of population in work force (from demographic studies) Removal of public health threat (cost avoided of alternative supply in “extreme” case). Cost avoided of alternative water supply/treatment (potentially desalination)*probability of occurrence Flow supplied by Vento Aquifer to service population Cost of desalination facilities for that flow Probability of ruining aquifer (survey of experts) (a) Reference: “Cost-Benefit Analysis for Implementing the West Coast Sewerage Project Under a Public-Private Partnership Arrangement,” Final Report to Barbados Water Authority, CDM, May 2008.

20 Methodologies for Incremental Benefits to Cojimar River Watershed
Methodology Data Needed Allow Transit Assign economic value to incremental transit activities (if any) enabled by diversion of flow List of current transit activities Estimate of additional transit activities from new flow Economic value of additional activities Irrigation Cost avoided of use of potable water Irrigation demand in Cojimar watershed and quality required Comparison of demand vs. diversion supply and quality Cost of treating offset amount of potable water Consumption of Raw Products Assign economic value to products Number of days per year consumption would be prohibited (survey of experts) Economic value of raw water products (fisheries studies) Recreation Economic value of beach closings avoided Number of days per year beach would be closed otherwise (survey of experts) Tourist visits and “willingness to pay” Resident visits and “willingness to pay” Public Water Supply Cost avoided of use of current potable water less cost of polishing this diversion flow Population and water demand in Cojimar watershed Comparison of demand with diversion flow Treatment costs for current supply and diversion flow Industrial Use for Food Processing Industrial demand and quality requirements in Cojimar watershed

21 Conclusions and Recommendations
8 priority watersheds (15% of country’s area) Almendares-Vento watershed (Havana) is best documented Highest wastewater priorities: Upper Almendares cleanup: Protect water source Mid-Almendares: Repair Maria del Carmen Wastewater Plant Northern Coast: Rehab outfall pipe Highest water priorities: Repair chlorine (disinfectant) facility at Sagua Upgrade electrical service (backups): Avoid pressure losses Repair chlorination equipment Upgrade pumps and surge suppressors Repair leaks (costly) Improve benefit-cost analysis with local data: Guide to refine priorities

22 Questions? Acknowledgments Juan Belt of USAID
Pete Robinson of Hazen and Sawyer U.Miami Student Groups, Cristina Ortega, Karen Kajder, Reshma Ramoutar, Omar De Leon, Jose Cueto, Tommy Kiger, Bader Alessa CA-ACE Board Members: Rod Rodriguez, Victor Pujals, Rafael Robayna, and Maria Porrata

23 Helena to Add Google Map Full Scale

24 Role of Committee Before and During a Political Transition

25 Purpose of Presentation
Summary of island-wide priorities Focus on Havana area issues Sample of cost-benefit methodology as guide for setting priorities Conclusions on Havana area priorities

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