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Presentation on theme: "MINERAL RESOURCES OF IRAQ"— Presentation transcript:


2 The geological and structural development of Iraq provided favourable conditions of formation of various types of mineral deposits and industrial rocks.


4 Most of the mineral resources of Iraq are non–metallic sedimentary type developed in various rock units of the Arabian Platform. Igneous, metamorphic and hydrothermal deposits (including metallic ores.) are mainly found in the Zagros Suture Zones .


6 The mineral resources of Iraq were explored
by various companies:- * Site Investigation Co. ( UK) : * Technoexport (former USSR) : * Geological Survey of Iraq: * Polytechna ( CGS) : * Bulgar Geomin : * Geozavod (former Yougoslavia ):


8 Native Sulfur: About 600 m. t
Native Sulfur: About 600 m.t. of native sulfur ( 60% of which extractable by frash method) is found in Middle Miocene Fatha Formation in Mishrak Field near Mosul. Production did not exceed 1 m.t./year from one site, and is mostly used in the phosphate fertilizer industry .

9 Phosphorite : More than 10000 m. t
Phosphorite : More than m.t. of proved reserves are found in the Western Desert, mostly in the Paleocene Akashat Formation. Average grade is 20-25% P2O5. Annual production did not exceed 2 m.t. and totally used in fertilizers industry.

10 Salt ( NaCl ) : Various resources of halite salt are known in Iraq
Salt ( NaCl ) : Various resources of halite salt are known in Iraq. Huge rock salt deposits are known in subsurface in the Sinjar and Kirkuk areas in Middle Miocene rock units. Production is restricted now to inland salterns mainly Samawa Saltern where the reserves are 50 m.t. of halite salt. Major uses are food, textiles and chemical industries. Annual production is about t.

11 Glauberite: About 22 m.t. of reserves were found in Shari Saltern near Sammara associated with gypsum and clays. The main use is in the production of sodium sulfate for detergents and glass industries.

12 Limestone: Huge reserves of high quality limestones are found in Iraq, mainly in Ratga Dammam, Euphrates, Sinjar and Fatha formations. More than 8000 m.t. were proved. Main use is in cement industry.

13 Dolomite: The major dolomite deposits are found in Mulussa and Zor Hauran Formations (Triassic), Hussainiyat and Amij formations (Jurassic),Dammam Formation(Eocene) and Euphrates Formation ( Miocene). About 330 m.t. of reserves are proved. Experimental tests showed suitability of Iraqi dolomite to produce magnesia and magnesia bricks.

14 Gypsum: The major primary gypsum deposits are found in the Fatha Formation (Miocene) in the Folded Zone of Iraq. The proved reserves exceed 130 m.t. and is mainly used in the production of plaster for building purposes.

15 Quartz- sand:Large deposits of high purity quartz–sand are found in the Gaَara Formation (Permocarboniferous), Nahr-Umr and Rutba formations ( Cretaceous ) in the Western Desert. The proved reserves are about 75m.t. Annual production used to be t. mainly for glass and ceramic industry.

16 Quartzite: Found in Nahr – Umr and Rutba Formations (Cretaceous) in the Western Desert About 16 m.t. are proved reserves, mainly used in silicon industries. Feldspathic sandstones: Feldspar–rich sandstones, with up to 20% feldspar are found in the Dibdibba Formation near Najaf area. The feldspar is mainly orthoclase; concentrated in the corse fraction of the sand. The proved reserves are about 2.3 m.t. and mainly used in ceramic industry.

17 Standard sand: Used in cement testing and found in the Hussainiyat Formation (Jurassic) in the Western Desert Heavy – minerals sandstones: These are found in the Gaَara and Amij Formations in the Western Desert. The main heavies are Zircon, rutile and monazite.

18 Gravel and sand as building raw materials: Found mostly in Quaternary deposits (Fans and terraces) in several deposits; mainly Nubai (gravel) and Kerbala – Najaf and Basra (sand).

19 Quaternary clays: Used for the production of bricks and in cement industry. About 285 m.m3 are proved for brick industry and 450 m.m3 for cement industry.

20 Kaolintic claystones: These are found in the Gaَara, Hussainiyat and Amij formations in the Western Desert. They are fluvial deposits associated with sandstones. About 1200 m.t. are proved and mostly used in ceramic industry. Experimental testing proved that these Kaolinitic claystones may be used to produce alumina by the lime- sinter process. Flint – clay: These are associated with bauxite deposits and the reserves are about 10 m.t. , mainly used in white cement industry.

21 Montmorillonitic claystone: The main deposits are of marine origin in the Digma Formation (Cretaceous) in the Western Desert. About 22 m.t. are proved and mainly used in drilling mud and civil engineering works, as well as a filter aid.

22 Attapulgite–rich claystone: This is found in various rock units from Cretaceous to Neogene in age.
The major deposits are in Akashat Formation (Paleocene ). Small reserves are proved and mainly used as filter aid and as salt – clay in drilling fluids.

23 Celestite: Small reserves of celestite were found in the Injana and Dibdibba formations (Najaf area). Not exploited.

24 Porcelanite: Opal – CT rich siliceous rocks are found
in the Digma and Akashat formations in association with phosphorites. About 1.8 m.t. were proved. Experimental tests showed suitability as a filter aid.

25 Bauxite: Small – scale karst bauxite deposits of Cretaceous age are found in the Ubaid formation carbonates in the Western Desert. The main use is in refractories. Ironstones: Sedimentary pisolitic ironstone deposits of pedogonic and fluvial origin are found in the Hussainiyat Formation (Jurassic). Proved reserves are about 60 m.t. and used in cement industry

26 Zinc & Lead: Significant Zn- Pb deposits, strata– bound and vein types are found in the Northern Thrust Zone of Kurdstan. They are Jurassic and Cretaceous in age and associated with carbonate rocks, occasionally with barite and pyrite associations.

27 Copper: Significant copper showings were reported in several localities in the Zagros Suture Zones. They are mostly of hydrothermal origin, associated with igneous rocks of basic and ultrabasic composition. Some of which may be part of the Meditteranean Cu- belt related to ophiolites. Most of the occurrences are found in Mawat Massif.

28 Chromium & Nickel: Numerous showings of Ni- rich chromites are found in the basic and ultrabasic igneous complexes of the Zagros Suture Zones, especially in Mawat.

29 Iron and Manganese: Contact metamorphic magnetite deposits are found in the Qandil Series (Cretaceous) in Penjween, Asnawa and Mishau( Kurdstan ). More over, ferromangnese nodules and lenses are found in the Qulqula Series (Jurrassic – Cretaceous) in various localities in Kurdstan. They are believed to be of submarine volcano – sedimentary origin.

30 Barite: Numerous barite deposits are recorded in the Northern Thrust Zone of Kurdstan, mostly associated with Zn-Pb deposits. Asbestos: Minor showings of asbestos (chrysotile) are found as nests and lenses in ultrabasic rocks of the igneous complexes of the Zagros Suture Zones.

31 Marble: High quality marble is found in the Qandil Series (Cretaceous) and Walash Series (Paleogene ) in Kurdstan Province. .


33 High diversity of mineral deposits and industrial rocks.
High quality and specifications. Generally easy mining conditions. Large reserves of many deposits. Multiple industrial uses including:-

34 Cement industry and construction materials.
Drilling mud. Filter aids. Fertilizers and other major chemical industries. Glass and ceramic industries. Refractories. Non- ferrus metallic industries.

35 Availability of : Skilled man power Energy resources Water resources Political support for private investments. Marketing possibilities. Encouraging investment legislations



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