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Instrumentation for X-Ray Astronomy A. Goldwurm AstroParticule et Cosmologie Service d’Astrophysique / CEA – Saclay France A. Goldwurm A. Goldwurm1 CR.

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Presentation on theme: "Instrumentation for X-Ray Astronomy A. Goldwurm AstroParticule et Cosmologie Service d’Astrophysique / CEA – Saclay France A. Goldwurm A. Goldwurm1 CR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instrumentation for X-Ray Astronomy A. Goldwurm AstroParticule et Cosmologie Service d’Astrophysique / CEA – Saclay France A. Goldwurm A. Goldwurm1 CR Workshop – Leiden (H), 14 – 18 / 03 / 2011

2 Specific Issues of X-ray Astronomy 1.Earth atmosphere is opaque to X-rays => balloons, rockets or satellites needed 2.Optics: difficult or even impossible to focalize X-rays 3.Detectors of Photoelectric and Compton interactions 4.Sources have intrinsically weak photon fluxes (non- thermal spectra or HE tail of thermal very hot medium) 5.Detectors sensitive to particles and particle-generated X- rays => high level of background => Low S/N ratios

3 The early days of X-ray Astronomy X-ray astronomy starts after the WW II 1962 discovery of the 1 st extra-solar X-ray source with Sounding Rocket det 1970 First X-ray satellite Uhuru Instruments based on Proportional Counters + collimators End of ’70s : focusing telescopes

4 radio, IR, visible, UV waves X and gamma - rays Jacques PaulPlanche 4L’observatoire spatial INTEGRAL – Lycée Arago – Perpignan Focalisation of Soft X-rays Soft Soft X - rays

5 X-ray Grazing incidence reflection Since E X > E e bind then refraction index for X-rays n X it exists an incident angle of total external reflection (grazing angle) given by cos θ r = n X For n X = (1-δ), θ r = (2δ) ½ with δ = N 0 Zr e ρλ 2 /A 2π (e.g. Giacconi+ 69) For Heavy Elements Z/A ~ 0.5 and therefore θ r  ρ 1/2 / E X Good reflectors are Au, Ni, Ir, Pt and critical angle are in the range 10’ - 2° for X-rays of 0.1 to 10 keV

6 WOLTER Type I X-ray Mirror System 1 Paraboloid + 1 Hyperboloid polished and coated mirrors E max = k f/D keV for D=1 m diameter & f=10 m focal length => E max ~ 10 keV

7 Nesting W-I Mirrors in a telescope

8 A Focusing X-ray Telescope Several nested W-I mirrors and coated in Ni, Au or Ir focalize grazing incident X-rays Into a focal plane position sensitive detector, e.g. a CCD for X-rays Images are formed with effective area given by nested mirrors and a low background that depends on the detector volume.

9 Major Mirror X-ray Telescopes (untill 2000) 1999

10 XMM - Newton

11 XMM Optical System and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer 70 cm 58 mirror shells 0.5 – 1 mm thick

12 Images from XMM Newton EPIC Observations: stabilized pointing of target sources for typical exposures of ks Data are in form of event lists (x, y, t, E) Analysis: correct, filter, bin and combine event lists into images, spectra, light curves, and then derive source parameters.

13 Imaging performances of XMM Images of a point source by the 3 EPIC cameras (MOS1 MOS2 and PN) PSF as function of distance from source: 6 " (FWHP), 15 " (HEW) 110”

14 XMM Performances Effective area of XMM mirrors plus focal plane instruments Typical spectra otained with XMM EPIC Calibration +background spectrum with XMM EPIC PN

15 The Chandra Observatory

16 And … for E > keV ? The concept of a Pinhole camera

17 source à l’infini masque codé détecteur sensible à la position The concept of Coded Mask Imaging

18 source 1 masque codé détecteur sensible à la position

19 source 2 masque codé détecteur sensible à la position

20 The ESA INTEGRAL Mission Launched with a Proton on 17/10/2002 The First Gamma-Ray OBSERVATORY for the Astronomical Community A Gamma Ray Observatory 2 main  -ray Telescopes Energy: 15 keV – 8 MeV High angular res.: ~ 12’ (IBIS) High spectral Res: DE/E ~=500 (SPI) + 2 Monitors (opt, X)

21 SPI γ-ray spectrometer OMC (visible band) IBIS γ-ray imager JEM-X (X-ray monitor) ISGRI camera IBIS / ISGRI Performances Energy Band 20 keV-1 MeV Angular Resolution 12’ FOV at 100% s. 9° x 9° at 0 sensitivity 29° x 29° Point Source Location Err. 30” (S/N~30) Temporal resolution 60  s 100 keV Sensitivity (ph cm -2 s -1 keV -1 ) (for 10 6 s, 3 ,  E=E) 1 mCrab Narrow line sens. (cm -2 s -1 ) Spectral resolution 8 keV

22 IBIS: Imager onBoard Integral Satellite

23 IBIS Data Analysis Detector Image Sum of Sky Images Mask Pattern Reconstructed Sky

24 MISSSIO N LAUNC H ENERGYOPTICSDETECTOR S FOVAng Res Area cm 2 En.Res (eV) RXTE keVCollimatorPropCount1° (6 keV) Chandra – 10 keVMirrorsCCD17’0.5 " 230 (6 keV) 170 (6 keV) Newton – 10 keVMirrorsCCD30’6"6" 850 (6 keV) 130 (6 keV) INTEGRAL keV - 10 MeV Cod Mask CdTe Det Ge Det 30°12’2000 (1MeV) SWIFT20041 – 150 keVMirror Cod Mask CdTe Det30’ Suzaku – 700 keV Mirror Collimator CCD Si Det 20’ 4.5° 1.5’ 30’ keV 120 (6 keV) MAXI (on ISS) keVCollimator (ASM) Gas PC Solid St. C 16 0° x 1.5° 1.5° Active X-Ray Missions

25 Same examples of Images obtained with X-ray Focussing Telescopes and Coded Mask hard X-ray / soft gamma-ray Telescopes

26 Chandra & XMM Surveys of the GC

27 6.4 keV Neutral Iron K line

28 XMM-Newton GC Survey0.3-9 keV 0.0° (Belanger et al. 2006) (Decourchelle et al. 2003) 0.0° 359.0°1.0° INTEGRAL GC Survey20-40 keV Sgr A Sgr B2

29 INTEGRAL / SPI 511 keV Line  Spherical shape (Bulge)  2D Gaussian profile with FWHM ~ 8º  Positronium fraction:  Annihilation in warm ionized medium  Origin of positrons unknown  Originated at the GC ? (Knodelseder et al. 2004, Churazov etal 04, Jean etal 2005,..) Centroid: / keV Line width: / keV (FWHM) Flux: (1.05±0.06)×10 -3 ph cm -2 s -1

30 Perspectives and Future Missions Focalization at E > 10 keV, using multilayer coating + long focal L (> 10 m) with extendable mats or formation flying: Nu-Star (US, 2013) Astro-H (JAXA, +, 2014): E max ~ 80 keV but Ang.Res > 40’ Several non-selected EU projects: Simbol-X (F-I), COSPIX (M3), NHXM (M3) Focal-Plane Micro-calorimeters for high spectral res.: Astro-H (and IXO) Light mirrors (glass layers, silicon pore layers) to obtain large effective areas and sensitivities (IXO) Small / medium missions: X-ray polarimeters (GEM US 2014) or Large sensitive areas for timing / spectral studies (LOFT) Coded masks for HE monitoring of transients and GRBs (SVOM Ch – F 2014) Compton telescopes and Bragg diffusion lenses (M3) for the 1 MeV range.

31 X-Ray Astronomy Programmatics Chandra, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL missions extended to 2014 Nu-Star, Astro H, SRG, GEM in development phase IXO delayed by US Decadal to after 2025 In competition for ESA Cosmic Vision Large class Mission (decision 2011) No HE mission in the ESA Medium class Missions M1/M2 Missions (Launch 2018) 1 HE mission selected for the ESA M3 call (L 2020): LOFT


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