Presentation on theme: "Prof. Ranjan R. Pradhan (PhD) Proprietor, Indocan Technology Solutions (Canada) C. V. Raman College of Engineering International Workshop on Public Education,"— Presentation transcript:
Prof. Ranjan R. Pradhan (PhD) Proprietor, Indocan Technology Solutions (Canada) C. V. Raman College of Engineering International Workshop on Public Education, Training, and Community Outreach for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage July , 2014 Decatur, Illinois, USA
1. Climate change and our project 2. Concept of the project 3. Implementation of the project 4. Characterization of the Product from the project 5. Overview on our Regional CCUS education and outreach efforts 6. Conclusion
500 MW thermal power plant generates about 8000 tons of CO2 per day Forest land needed to capture this emission A hectare of pine forest can capture about 1 ton carbon dioxide / year, We need about sq km land or roughly 20 % of total area of Illinois for a 500MW thermal Power Plant What are we missing in our existing practices? The scale of CO 2 disposal need far exceeds CO 2 utilization
The dilemma! Either Restrict the growth & promotion of thermal power plants OR Facilitate adequate forest coverage to compensate for the emissions Neither of the above can be acceptable for India, We need to look for feasible alternates for low carbon economy & support mandates similar to Kyoto protocol
How do we Address related Global Climate Change / Warming CDR (Carbon Dioxide Removal) SRM (Solar Radiation Management) We are trying to establish means for Low carbon Economy (CDR)
CDR (Carbon dioxide removal) Must be Sustainable Carbon Capture For Thermal Power Plants Thermal power plants, though a developmental need for India is a major GHG polluter (Thermal power plants contribute 25 % of the global GHG emission) If can be captured at a reasonable cost, it can be a good alternative to utilize the abundantly available coal resources in India.
Two major possible CDR technologies (In context of India) Microalgae-based Capture Technology Geological Sequestration Technology SustainableSocial problems SafeUntested on large scale No need to transport CO2Need to transport CO2 to sequestration site Generates biomassNo additional revenue expected Coupled with wastewater treatment Not Coupled with oil recovery $ = carbon credit + nutrient credit + biomass $ = carbon credit ? Potential Alternates of Low Carbon Economy (thermal Energy
Algae CDR Concept 500 MW power plant generating about 8000 tons of CO2 per day is a huge resource if can be utilized The amount of CO2 sequestered in Algae Biomass Sequestration Calculated as a unit of Tons/ Acre/Year #Carbon Content Assumed in Biomass is ~ 50 % Carbon to CO2 : 1 kg of carbon is equivalent to 3.6 kg of CO2 1 mole of carbon give 1 mol of CO2, Molecular wt of C = 12 & CO2 is 44, So Molar ratio = 44/12 = 3.6 Every ton of Microlgal Biomass would be generated by capturing 1.8 ton of CO2 ( #Knowledge Reference, National Forest Assessments, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations,
Key PlayersEnd Use of Algae SeambioticFood additives, Fish feed and biofuels MBDAlgae oil Linc EnergyBiodiesel, Fertilizers and power. Trident ExplorationElectricity RWE energyBiogas plant Glenturret Whisky distillery Animal feed for cattle and Shellfish farms NALCO, IndiaBiorefinery Value Chain Microbial Biomass is a Bonus (in addition to capture)!
Algae based Process / Technology Flow NALCO – CPP Flue 135 ° C 12 – 15 % CO 2 Flue gas is processed to make Suitable for Sequestration Application Bacterial Mass Cultivation System Operation aided with flue gas Biomass Recovery System & Quantification Biomass Value Chain and Utilization Technologies
Carbon Sequestration Pilot Cum Demonstration Plant NALCO, - CPPAngul, Odisha, India
Construction of Ponds :
Flugas Supply line from Duct of Unit – 7 and 8 Heat exchanger, scrubber & cooling tower erected Ducts from Unit 7 & 8
NTU Time - Days MICROALGAE SELCTION
Recovered Algal Biomass Potential Plants can tolerate less CO2 ( ~ 450 PPM) Plants growth has been increased by three times by enhancing CO2 conc. to about 450 ppm Algae can tolerate higher CO2 Conc (> 20 % CO2 OR 200,000 ppm) Algae growth rate can be enhanced upto 10 – 20 times with enhanced CO2 in lab scale
Thermal characterization of algae biomass and algae oil
Process Conclusion Algae – A Promising & Future Biomass from Flue gas : Each gram of algae will capture 1.8 gm of CO2. Current Pilot cum Demonstration plant generates at the rate of 20 – 30 tons of Biomass per acre /year ( Equivalent to 36 – 54 tons CO2 capture / acre / year) With an algal cultivation system the equivalent forest land requirement can be reduces by a factor of 10, as more than 10 times biomass can be generate, and depending on the end use, the carbon sequestration may be valued further.
Applications Biorefinery - Materials A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum..
Algal Biomass to Energy Content: 1.Direct Firing Biomass have heating values that fall in the range of 14–19 MJ/kg (6,040–8,200 BTU/lb); Coal ranges from 17–30 MJ/kg (7,300–1,3000 BTU/lb) 2. Biogas Methane yield of 0.24 m 3 per kg (4.0 ft 3 per lb) VS added 1 tonne (1000kg) wet Algae (~50% dry content) 99.2 m3CH4 x 10 kWh m-3CH4 = 992 kWh 1 m3 CH4 = 1 litre diesel fuel 3. Biodiesel ( 20 – 40 % lipid content) Applications Biorefinery - Energy
Land availability near power plant Retrofitting algae systems in existing power plants Economic viability demonstration in India Industrial perception Encouraging Socio Economic and Awareness of CCS with microalgae Challenges yet to be addressed
Major issues to drive policy decisions for Algal Technology 1.Climate change mandate 2.Vast land use change in India. (Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change –IPCC reported land use change is one of the major contributor to carbon emission, i.e. equivalent to 25% of all the fossil fuel and cement plants emission combined) 3. India is rightly place for the technology to evolve – a)Optimum Climate and more than 340 days of sunshine b)Large number of coal based power plants being built c)Carbon dioxide is a very useful resource for algae industry & should not be wasted d)Algal biomass will initiate a new resource for biorefinery value chain
The ministry of 'environment and forests' (Govt. of India) is now ministry of ‘Environment, Forests and climate change ', Establishment of 1 st Pilot cum Demonstration Plant in the country for CO2 Sequestration by Algae Inclusive National Education Policy Inclusive Regional Education policy Local Environmental Associations and NGO
Sara Volz Student of Colorado Springs, Colorado, accepted the top prize a $100,000 scholarship for her alternative-energy research Future Students
CO2 can be a huge resource for alternate Materials and Energy (Biorefinery) Microbial Biomass Generation can be a potential Carbon Capture and Storage Mechanism Conclusion
Thank you Questions ?
Amount of Algae harvested during the year ( 1st harvest during last week of March'2014) Answer: 48 Kg from one cultivation pond / batch Amount of Carbon dioxide sequestered during the above period ( for the year ) Answer: 86.4 Kg in one cultivation pond / batch Calculation: 1. Carbon Content Assumed in Biomass is ~ 50 % ( Referance : Knowledge Reference, National Forest Assesments, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, 2. Carbon to Amount CO2 1 mole of carbon give 1 mol of CO2 Molcular wt of C = 12 & CO2 is 44 So Molar ratio = 44/12 = 3.6 ( 1 kg of carbon is equivalent to 3.6 kg of CO2) 3. Sequestration of CO2 48kg biomass / 2 = 24 kg 50 % carbon content 24 kg Carbon = 24 x 3.6 = 86.4 kg CO2 Therefore : of Carbon dioxide sequestered during the above period ( for the year ) = iii) The amount of CO2 sequestered in-Tons/ Acre/Year Answer: 20 ton / acre / batch Calculation for Per Acre: The cultivation and algae production reported is for one pond One pond is 3000 square feet area. One acre is sq. ft area ie times size of cultivation algae area Therefore sequastration per acre is 86.4 x = kg OR about 1.25 ton Calculation for Per Acre per year: The reported 48 kg batch was harvested in a production period of 22 days. For in year ie 365 days period there can be 365 / 24 = ~ 16 batches For 16 batches 1.25 x 16 = 20 tons Therefore: amount of CO2 sequestered in-Tons/ Acre/Year = 20 tons CO2/acre/year
We can calculate Biogas based on the carbon content of the Algae 1000 kg wet Algae Water content = 480 kg Solids content = 520 kg dry matter (52%TS) Organic dry matter =322 kg dry matter (32%ODM) 50% carbon content in the ODM Carbon in 1000kg of wet Algae = 322 x 50 / 100) kg C = 161 kg C If % of carbon biodegraded is 60% Then 161 x 60 /100 = 96.6 kg C converted to biogas From Buswell, 55% CH4 and 45% CO2 Weight of methane carbon (CH4 –C) 96.6 x 0.55 = kg C Weight of methane (CH4 ) x 16/12 =70.88 kg CH4 1 mol gas at STP = 22.4 litres 16g CH4 = 22.4 litres 70880g CH4 = 70880/16 mols = 4430 mols CH x 22.4 = litres CH4 = 99.2 m3 CH4 m3 CH4 m3 CO2 m3 CH m CO = m 1000 kg residual waste = 99.2 m biogas
Energy value of methane and Algae 1m3 methane = 36 MJ 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ 1m3 CH4 = 10 kWh 1 tonne (1000kg) wet Algae 99.2 m3CH4 x 10 kWh m-3CH4 = 992 kWh 1 Sq KM = 100 Hactars