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IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Non-electric applications with nuclear power KHAMIS, Ibrahim Head, Non-electric Applications Unit Nuclear Power.

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Presentation on theme: "IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Non-electric applications with nuclear power KHAMIS, Ibrahim Head, Non-electric Applications Unit Nuclear Power."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Non-electric applications with nuclear power KHAMIS, Ibrahim Head, Non-electric Applications Unit Nuclear Power Technology Development Section Department of Nuclear Energy

2 IAEA Contents  Introduction to cogeneration  Non-electric applications & Nuclear energy  Status of major non-electric applications  IAEA support for non-electric applications  Conclusion

3 IAEA 3 What is Cogeneration & Multi-generation? Q W Electricity Process steam/heat Heating/Hot water Cooling/Air-conditioning Hydrogen Desalination Efficiency Matters! : Nuclear Reactor

4 IAEA Why cogeneration with nuclear?

5 IAEA What is Non-electric applications? It is the use of nuclear power partially or fully for the production of heat (i.e. process steam) required for such applications: Seawater desalination Hydrogen production District heating Process heat for Industry: Petrochemical, refineries, oil sand/shale oil recovery, syn-gas production (coal-quality improvement), metal production (steel, iron, Aluminium..etc), glass and cement manufacturing..etc.

6 IAEA Current status of nuclear power? Heat Electricity Transport There is a big market for non-electric applications Sectors of global energy consumption

7 IAEA The wide “spectrum” of current reactors can cover all applications Non-electric Applications & Nuclear Energy

8 IAEA Facts on non-electric applications with nuclear power Less than 1% of heat generated in nuclear reactors worldwide is at present used for non-electric applications. Potential: 340 units (1000 MWth) for district heating, 150 desalination, 240 for process heat, 600 for hydrogen Proven technology: with 79 operative reactors and 750 reactor-years experience:  1956: Calder Hall plant in UK provided electricity and heat to nearby fuel processing plant  1963: Agesta NPP in Sweden provided hot water for district heating to a suburb of Stockholm  1972: Aktau in Kazakhstan provided heat and electricity for seawater desalination to supply 120 000 m3/day fresh water for the city of Aktau  1979: Bruce in Canada heat to heavy-water production and industrial & agricultural users

9 IAEA Advantages of non-electric applications using nuclear energy Improve NPP efficiency (Energy saving): Recycling of waste heat Rationalization of power production (use of off-peak) Improve the value of heat (use low-quality steam) Improve economics of NPPs (Better Revenue due to ): Better utilization of fuel Sharing of infrastructures Production of more than one product (cogeneration) Sustain the environment (keep Clean & reduce ): Consumption of fossil fuel to produce energy for non-electric applications Impact due to all above (compared to two standalone plants) CO 2

10 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

11 IAEA Drivers for cogeneration  Improve economics  Meet demand for energy-intensive non-electric products (desalination, hydrogen,…etc).  Secure energy supply for industrial complexes  Accommodate seasonal variations of electricity demand  Match small and medium electrical grid with available large-size reactors

12 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

13 IAEA Harnessing waste heat: PBMR for desalination Using reject heat from the pre-cooler and intercooler of PBMR = 220 MW th at 70 °C + MED desalination technology Cover the needs of 55 000 – 600 000 people Desalinated water 15 000 – 30 000 m3/day Waste heat Waste heat: Heat extracted from NPP with no penalty to the power production Waste heat can also be recovered from PWR and CANDU type reactors to preheat RO seawater desalination

14 IAEA Improvement of economics 10% of 1000 MWe PWR for desalination Total revenue (Cogeneration 90% electricity +10% water): To produce 130 000 m3/day of desalinated water using 1000 MWe PWR StandaloneMEDRO Electricity7166 M$6771 M$7062 M$ Water0888 M$672 M$ Total7166 M$7660 M$7700 M$ +7%+7.5% Using RO : Increased availability No lost power as in MED Using waste heat to preheat feedwater by 15 o C increases water production by ~13% Using MED: Easier maintenance & pre- treatment Industrial quality water

15 IAEA Improvement of economics with small desalination plants Cheap nuclear desalination Fuel cost ~ 15% of total electricity costs Nuclear PP 1000 MWe Nuclear PP 1000 MWe MED - TVC 50,000 m 3 /d 125 MW(th) GOR=10 150 ºC ~ 3% of total steam flow Steam extracted at 150 ºC after it has produced 55% of its electricity potential. 3% x 45%= 1.35% more steam needed in order to compensate the power lost Source : Rognoni et al., IJND 2011

16 IAEA Better economics during off-peak power Hydrogen production $/kg 4.15 $3.23 $2.50 $1.5 – 3.5 Conventional Electrolysis (> 1000 kg/day) Dedicated nuclear HT Steam Electrolysis plant Off-peak grid electricity ($0.05/kW hr), HTSE Large-scale Steam Methane Reforming directly dependent on the cost of natural gas, no carbon tax 16

17 IAEA Nuclear Desalination Reactors: 13 Countries with experience: 4 Total reactor-years: 247 India The 6,300 m3/d MSF-RO Hybrid Nuclear Desalination Plant at Kalpakkam, India, consists of 4,500 m3/d MSF plant and 1,800 m3/d SWRO plant,Pakistan MED thermal desalination demonstration plant of capacity up to 4,800 m3/d at KANUPPKorea Constructing a one-fifth scale SMART-P with a MED desalination unit in parallel with the SMART nuclear desalination project Demonstration Projects Commissioned in 2010

18 IAEA Nuclear Desalination Sound technically and economically Available experience Cogeneration issue Need of Potable Water Cogeneration: Nuclear heat and/or electricity Co-location & Sharing of facilities and services (NPP & ND) Innovations to make ND more viable Issues and Considerations Characteristics

19 IAEA Routes for Nuclear-Assisted H2 Production

20 IAEA Hydrogen production using nuclear power Current nuclear reactors:  Low-temperature electrolysis, efficiency ~ 75%  Off-peak power or intermittent Future nuclear reactors:  High-temperature electrolysis, efficiency ~ 95%  Thermo chemical splitting, efficiency ~ 95%:  Sulfur- Iodine cycle.  Sulfur-Bromine hybrid Cycle cycle  Copper Chlorine cycle

21 IAEA District heating Well proven: Bulgaria, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine Usually produced in a cogeneration mode Limited in applications Characteristics:Technical features:  Heat distribution network Steam or hot water 80-150°C Typical distribution 10-15 km  District heat needs: Typically up to 600-1200 MW th for large cities  Annual load factor < 50%

22 IAEA District Heating Finland Switzerland Russian Federations

23 IAEA Industrial process heat applications Example of future nuclear application - CANADA Replace burning of natural gas for mining oil sands Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Experience: Canada, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, and India Main Requirements: Location close to user High reliability Examples: Enhanced brown coal quality Enhanced brown coal quality Coal Liquefaction Coal Liquefaction Coal Gasification Coal Gasification Enhanced oil recovery Enhanced oil recovery

24 IAEA Enhanced oil recovery Path ways for Enhanced oil recovery:  Exploitation of Heavy oils Reserves  Recovery of nature and de-graded oil fields  Production of Clean fuels and syngas from heavy sour crude oil and refinery tars /dirty fuels)

25 IAEA Challenges for non-electric applications  Disparity between characteristics of nuclear reactors & heat markets : Reliability & availability: no unexpected outages & Max availability Large vs small NPPs ( industrial park vs decentralized industries ) Wide range of processes or industries Planning schedule for complete projects (long vs short)  Industry trends: Require small amount of heat 1-300 MWth, majority < 10 MWth, Buy energy but not risk build it Demonstrate newly NPPs tailored for industry (HTR)

26 IAEA Challenges for non-electric applications  Economics of NEA : Best option:  Large reactors vs SMR  Single purpose vs cogeneration (more than one product) Affordable (and at stable prices) Available on short & medium terms (15 years)  Licenseability of tailored cogeneration NPPs with ensured safety  Siting:  NIMBY: the “Not in my back yard” syndrome  Transport of electricity or heat vs products

27 IAEA IAEA Project on Non-Electric Applications 1.1.6 Support for Non- electrical Applications of Nuclear Power I. Khamis Website: http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/NEA/ Support to Near-Term Deployment +

28 IAEA DEEP Identification of cost options for desalted water and/or power DE-TOP Identification of coupling configurations and analysis of heat extraction and power production Toolkit Contains hyperlinks to sources on nuclear desalination. IAEA tools in support of non-electric applications

29 IAEA WAMP Identification of water needs in NPPs, and comparative assessment of various cooling systems) HEEP Identification of cost options for hydrogen production, distribution and storage Toolkit Contains hyperlinks to sources on nuclear hydrogen production IAEA tools in support of non-electric applications Not yet released

30 IAEA Conclusions Nuclear energy can: Penetrate energy sectors now served by fossil fuels as: seawater desalination district heating Hydrogen production heat for industrial processes Provide near-term, greenhouse gas free, energy for transportation  Nuclear cogeneration is feasible and economically viable: Provide near-term, greenhouse gas free, energy for transportation

31 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency …Thank you for your attention


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