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Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Delhi Key indicators, drivers and implications By: Pratima Singh Supervisor: Dr. Arun Kansal (TERI Univ.) Co-supervisor: Dr.

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Presentation on theme: "Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Delhi Key indicators, drivers and implications By: Pratima Singh Supervisor: Dr. Arun Kansal (TERI Univ.) Co-supervisor: Dr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Delhi Key indicators, drivers and implications By: Pratima Singh Supervisor: Dr. Arun Kansal (TERI Univ.) Co-supervisor: Dr. Cynthia Carliell Marquet (UOB)

2 Water-energy-carbon nexus and under rated issues ENERGY FOR WATER  US- 4% for WT,5% GHG emission from water sector (1) (no embodied energy)  S.A (eThekwini)- water distribution- 0.10 kWh/m 3, GHG emission 0.139 kg CO2e/m 3 (2)  Belgium- WWTP’s (0.05 to 1.34) MGD was (0.19 to 0.31)kWh/m 3 (3)  NW Spain- Aeration (0.177 to 0.70) MGD was (1.13 to 2.07) kWh/m 3 (4)  Toronto- WT 0.68 kWh/m 3 and GHG 0.11 kg CO2e/m 3 yr. (5)  UK- 3% for WS 41 million tonnes CO 2 e/yr (6) (no embodied energy) WATER FOR ENERGY (7)  Coal production- 0.164 m3/GJ  Crude oil- 1.058 m3/GJ  Natural gas- 0.109 m3/GJ  Hydropower- 5.4 m3/MWh  Solar heating- 0.954 m3/MWh  Nuclear plant- 2.726 m3/MWh  Solar thermal power plant- 4 m3/MWh  Thermoelectric power plant- 3.7 m3/MWh 4. Gallego et L., 2008 5. Racoviceanu et al.,2007 6. Rothausen.S; Conway.D, 2011 7. World energy council report, 2010 Sources: 1. Rothausen.S; Conway.D, 2011 2. Friedrich et al. 2007 3. Lassaux et al., 2007 2

3 Knowledge Gaps Lack of energy studies for urban water sector in Asia & Middle- East. (More focus on agriculture, industries and infrastructure) Only electrical energy consumption has been considered for the energy use in almost all the studies. Lack of information related to emission from wastewater system including various treatment processes. Lack of water-energy-carbon nexus study in South-Asian nation on water system 3

4 Aim & Objective The study aims to look into the water-energy nexus in a integrated manner for the entire urban water cycle. The nexus will focus on the criticality of one influencing the other. Total energy and forms of energy used in various aspect of urban water sector will be assimilated and also water used for energy generation will be accounted. The study will also look into the energy nexus to find its influence on the climate action plan of the city. 4

5 Objectives To find the energy intensity, various form’s of energy consumption of urban water system- the factors that influence the energy use To find how different forms has influenced overall energy consumption and climate. To find water requirement of energy generation Comparative analysis of Birmingham and India water system– lesson’s 5

6 Scope System boundary commences at the point of raw water abstraction and ends with discharge of treated wastewater. Various forms of energy used for operation & maintenance will be accounted (Electrical, manual, petroleum). Energy for construction, embodied energy and chemical energy are not considered. Carbon emission (off-site and on-site) and potential fugitive emission during treatment process will be taken into account. Impacts associated with carbon emission’s are not considered. The end use of water is not taken into account. 6

7 Key research questions What is the energy share of water sector to the city’s total energy demand ? What is energy elasticity with respect to scale of treatment units and technology ? Does other forms of energy has any significance in total energy estimate ? 7

8 Main activities of proposed research Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum) On-site & fugitive emissions Groundwater Surface water Intermediate pumping Off-site emissions Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum) On-site emissions Water pumping Tanker-fuel Domestic Booster pump Domestic purifiers Off-site emissions Wastewater pumping Off-site emissions Intermediate pumping On-site emissions Energy for water Water for energy Abstraction Disposal WW Treatment WW collection Distribution Treatment Thermal power plants Hydro power plants Extraction & refining Fuel production Growing and producing bio-fuels 8

9 Case study - Delhi 9

10 Preliminary results-LU/LC 1977 2006 (Sharma et al. 2008) (Sharma et al. 2011) NOIDA 10

11 Data Sources:, Census of India; Data Sources: Population growth in NCR 11

12 Photo courtesy: Central Pollution Control Board, Yamuna basin Yamuna Population migration Resource migration Population and resource migration- Yamuna River basin 12

13 Existing water sources in Delhi Water resources DelhiTotal amount (MGD) Yamuna Water 339 MGD Ganga Water 240 MGD Bhakra Beas Management Board water 150 MGD Ground water 100 MGD Data Sources: MPD-2021, 2003. Department of Environment and Forest, 2010

14 Hathnikund barrage Western Yamuna Canal, 113 km, 100MGD Bhakra-Nangal storage/Sutlej river, 230 km, 140 MGD Nangloi waterworks Bawana waterworks Dwarka waterworks Haiderpur waterworks I Najafgarh drain Supplementary drain Eastern Yamuna Canal, 25 km, 240 MGD Chandrawal waterworks, 3 km Wazirabad waterworks, 3 km Bhagirathi waterworks Sonia vihar waterworks Shahdara Drain Okhla Agra Canal Hindon Cut 228km 231km Haiderpur waterworks II 20 km 25 km 112.4 km Wazirabad barrage (210 MGD) Sources of raw water, Delhi Data Sources: DHI, 2010; _4th_Meeting/DJB_Water_PPT.pdf Thermal Power Plant Tehri Dam/Upper Ganga Canal, 226 km, 240 MGD 14

15 MPD-2021, 2003 15

16 Data Sources: Shekhar et al.2009 CGWB; NCRPB Declining trend in groundwater, NCR 16

17 Ground waterUnits Avg. daily withdrawal (m 3 /d) Avg. Depth (m) Energy estimated (kWh/d) Delhi Private DJB Gurgaon Borewell and Tubewell Noida Borewell and Tubewell Energy consumption for groundwater extraction 17

18 Energy demand forecast for groundwater pumping Year Estimated depth (m) Estimated abstraction (m 3 /d) Estimated Energy consumed (MWh/d) Indirect GHG emission (Gg-CO 2 -e/d) 2001 2011 2021 18

19 Public water supplies WTPs Photo courtesy: Data Source: DJB NameCapacity (MGD)Estimated Energy consumption (MWh/d) Wazirabad (I, II & III)120 Hayderpur200 Sonia Vihar140 Bhagirathi (North Shahdara)100 Nangloi40 Chandrawal (I & II)90 Bawana20 TOTAL710 19

20 Trend of increasing gap between water treatment and water demand Data sources: Department of environment and Forest, 2010 20

21 Private water purifiers Filter Filter + U.V. Reverse osmosis 1980s 1990s 2000s Photo courtesy: 21

22 Water consumption through purifiers Daily production for water for cooking and drinking is found to be 40 liters/day per household Data Source for energy consumption of RO & Filter + UV system: Uniphil Electronics Private Limited PurifiersEstimated energy consumption (MWh/d) Filter + UV 2.74 R.O 122.35 TOTAL 125.09 CategoriesFilterFilter + UVR.O (domestic + water markets)Nothing HIG2%40%43%15% MIG4%48%31%17% LIG13%37%12%38% 22

23 Water distribution 23

24 Water distribution by tankers ZonesSummer monthsRest of the year No. of tankers used per week Avg. capacity of the tankers (gallons) No. of tankers used per week Avg. capacity of the tankers (gallons) CentralNA City & Sp12045001204500 Civil lines3620 trips3000-10000 lit.10456000-10000 lit Karol Bagh1000 trips850350850 Mehrauli911500421500 NajafgarhNA Rohini179113507141350 RWS-N72186672212657 Shah/N2100500010005000 Shah/S1700100011501000 South1365 trips13204501320 West86060006606000 Data Source: TERI Report No. 1999EE44 24

25  5741 Gallons of water is distributed everyday by private tankers.  On an avg. 1910 private and 400 a public tankers distribute water all over Delhi.  Individual tankers travels 18 km on an avg. and makes 4 trips per day.  Tankers use diesel as fuel and they still run on old engine technology. Photo’s courtesy: a- 25

26 Area without sewerage facility Data source: DJB, 2010 Status-categoriesNo. of colonies/villages Unauthorized colonies1639 JJ clusters1080 Rural villages201 26

27 Gap between sewage generated and treated Data source: DJB, 2010 27

28 Methodology Literature Review Data collected a)field observations, primary data collection b)interactions with plant operators and c)One-on-one interviews d)time inventory of various activities on field for manual energy using stopwatch. e)comprehensive inventorization of activities and their sub- activities in STP demanding energy (manual, fuel, electrical) f)Validation of data with log-book and records of operation in plant g)Equal representation of weekdays and weekends was considered for monitoring 28

29 Methodology Estimation of electrical energy input The electrical energy input is estimated by considering the electrical load of the pump/motor (kW), time in hours (h) for which the motor is operated and total amount of wastewater treated. Where, E p is the electrical energy kWh/m 3 ; is determined using Q is the total flow of wastewater in m 3 /d P is the rated power of the electrical motor in kilo Watt (kW) T is the operation hours in a day (h/d) The motor efficiency is assumed as 80% (Fadare DA 2010). 29

30 Estimation of manual energy input Where, E m is manual energy in kWh/m 3 is determined using n is the number of nature of activities (light, active, and heavy) m is the number of gender (male, female) E is the human energy equivalent (kW) N is the number of persons engaged in an activity T is the total time devoted in the activity (h/d) Human power equivalent (E) in kW InputMaleFemaleActivities in the treatment plant Light0.130.10Switch on/off the raw water pump, maintain the log-book, check motor temperature Moderate0.140.11Open/close the sludge drain valve, operation of valves for backwashing Heavy0.540.44Prepare the chemical solution for dosing, fill the chemical solution in the dosing tank, collect the dried sludge in gunny bags 30

31 Estimation of fuel energy use Fuel energy (E f ) kWh/m 3 is calculated using eq. Where, 15.64 is the unit energy value of diesel in kWh/l (Devi 2007a) D is the amount of diesel consumed in l/d. Diesel consumption is also used for oiling and repairing of machineries Estimation of energy use(booster pumps) for domestic purpose Interview based survey with the help of questionnaire having close ended and quantity based questions. Pilot study will be conducted 31

32 Estimation of GHG emission’s Calculation of direct and in-direct emissions associated with electricity generation P CO2, electricity = E required ×∑ (Fi × EFi) Where, P CO2, electricity is GHG production of the plant (kg CO2e/m 3 ) E required is the electricity demands of the plant in kWh/m 3 Fi is the % contribution of the fuel (i) to satisfy electricity generation needs EFi is the GHG emission factor of fuel (i) in producing electricity in kg CO2e/kWh 32

33 Process wise energy distribution 33

34 Total electrical energy consumption by centralized WWTPs 34

35 Total fuel energy consumption by centralized WWTPs 35

36 Total manual energy consumption by centralized WWTPs 36

37 Total energy consumption by centralized WWTPs 37

38 Percentage share of energy 38

39 Technology wise energy distribution 39

40 Zonal energy distribution ZonePopl.(mill) Shahdara1.1 Rithala0.94 Okhla2.86 Keshopur2.29 CP0.46 Outer Delhi0.15 TOTAL7.71 40

41 Zonal % energy distribution (SPS+WWTP’s) 41

42 Decentralized WWTP WWTP Size of the Plant (m 3 /d) Energy Consumption (MWh/d) TERI WWTP250.048 SMB School WWTP500.25 IOCL WWTP1000.18 Delhi Haat WWTP1750.19 Escorts Hospital WWTP 3000.36 Fortis Hospital WWTP 3000.38 Apollo Hospital WWTP 10001.03 42

43 Total energy consumption and CO 2 emission in urban water cycle Estimated energy consumed (MWh/d) Indirect GHG emission (Gg CO 2 e/d) Abstraction Ground water pumping only excluding surface water conveyance from distance Water treatmentDomestic/private Water Purifiers Public DistributionTankers Pipeline (water supply + sewage) WWTCentralized TOTAL 43

44 Water for energy Name Fuel usedCapacityWater requirement (MGD) Indraprastha power stationCoal based247.5 MW8.6 Rajghat power house Coal based135 MW4.7 GTPSGas based282 MW4.2 Pragati power stationGas based330 MW4.9 Badarpur TPPCoal Based705 MW24.6 TOTAL1699.5 MW Govt. of NCT of Delhi 2001-02 44

45 Water for energy Data Source: newdelhi/article2519668.ece 45

46 Key indicators, drivers and Implications Tension between water and energy is growing. Demand of energy for wastewater treatment WWTP’s in urban water cycle is increasing with increasing population, which is found to be 2.65Wh/m 3 (3.9% of the total power demand of the city) and availability of water for energy generation is reducing resulting in less power generation during peak season. Increasing trends of energy demand for sewage pumping: In Delhi from all the 7 zones the total energy use for sewage pumping is found to be about 0.13kWh/m 3, (3.5% of the total power demand of the city) Process having the greatest impact on energy consumption: Aeration in activated sludge process that the highest energy use of 1.28kWh/m 3 (48% of the total energy consumed in the treatment process). 46

47 Key indicators, drivers and Implications Activated sludge process dominated the energy consumption with 0.87kWh/m 3 (33% of the total energy consumed in the treatment process) compared to other technologies Increase in energy consumption with large urban spread: Out of the seven zonal areas in Delhi, it was found that Okhla zone consumed the highest amount of energy for sewage pumping and wastewater treatment, 1.86kWh/m 3 (67% of the total energy consumed in treatment and pumping process). 47

48 THANKS 48

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