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1 Training Session on Energy Equipment Compressors & Compressed Air Systems Presentation from the “Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia” © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
2 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Compressor Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Introduction Types of compressors Assessment of compressors and compressed air systems Energy efficiency opportunities
3 © UNEP 2006 Compressors: 5 to > 50,000 hp 70 – 90% of compressed air is lost Significant Inefficiencies Introduction Electrical Equipment/ Compressors (McKane and Medaris, 2003)
4 © UNEP 2006 (eCompressedAir) Electricity savings: 20 – 50% Maintenance reduced, downtime decreased, production increased and product quality improved Benefits of managed system Introduction Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
5 © UNEP 2006 Intake air filters Inter-stage coolers After coolers Air dryers Moisture drain traps Receivers Main Components in Compressed Air Systems Introduction Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
6 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Compressor Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Introduction Types of compressors Assessment of compressors and compressed air systems Energy efficiency opportunities
7 © UNEP 2006 Two Basic Compressor Types Types of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Type of compressor Positive displacement Reciprocating Rotary Dynamic CentrifugalAxial
8 © UNEP 2006 (King, Julie) Used for air and refrigerant compression Works like a bicycle pump: cylinder volume reduces while pressure increases, with pulsating output Many configurations available Single acting when using one side of the piston, and double acting when using both sides Reciprocating Compressor Types of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
9 © UNEP 2006 Screw compressor Rotors instead of pistons: continuous discharge Benefits: low cost, compact, low weight, easy to maintain Sizes between 30 – 200 hp Types Lobe compressor Screw compressor Rotary vane / Slide vane Rotary Compressor Types of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
10 © UNEP 2006 (King, Julie) Rotating impeller transfers energy to move air Continuous duty Centrifugal Compressor Types of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Designed oil free High volume applications > 12,000 cfm
11 © UNEP 2006 Efficiency at full, partial and no load Noise level Size Oil carry-over Vibration Maintenance Capacity Pressure Comparison of Compressors Types of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
12 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Compressor Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Introduction Types of compressors Assessment of compressors and compressed air systems Energy efficiency opportunities
13 © UNEP 2006 Capacity: full rated volume of flow of compressed gas Actual flow rate: free air delivery (FAD) FAD reduced by ageing, poor maintenance, fouled heat exchanger and altitude Energy loss: percentage deviation of FAD capacity Capacity of a Compressor Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
14 © UNEP 2006 Isolate compressor and receiver and close receiver outlet Empty the receiver and the pipeline from water Start the compressor and activate the stopwatch Note time taken to attain the normal operational pressure P2 (in the receiver) from initial pressure P1 Calculate the capacity FAD: Simple Capacity Assessment Method Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors P2 = Final pressure after filling (kg/cm2a) P1 = Initial pressure (kg/cm2a) after bleeding) P0 = Atmospheric pressure (kg/cm2a) V = Storage volume in m3 which includes receiver, after cooler and delivery piping T = Time take to build up pressure to P2 in minutes
15 © UNEP 2006 Compressor Efficiency Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Most practical: specific power consumption (kW / volume flow rate) Other methods Isothermal Volumetric Adiabatic Mechanical
16 © UNEP 2006 Isothermal efficiency P1 = Absolute intake pressure kg / cm2 Q1 = Free air delivered m3 / hr r = Pressure ratio P2/P1 Compressor Efficiency Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Isothermal efficiency = Actual measured input power / Isothermal power Isothermal power (kW) = P1 x Q1 x loger / 36.7
17 © UNEP 2006 Volumetric efficiency D = Cylinder bore, meter L = Cylinder stroke, meter S = Compressor speed rpm χ = 1 for single acting and 2 for double acting cylinders n = No. of cylinders Compressor Efficiency Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Volumetric efficiency = Free air delivered m3/min / Compressor displacement Compressor displacement = Π x D2/4 x L x S x χ x n
18 © UNEP 2006 Consequences Energy waste: 20 – 30% of output Drop in system pressure Shorter equipment life Common leakage areas Couplings, hoses, tubes, fittings Pressure regulators Open condensate traps, shut-off valves Pipe joints, disconnects, thread sealants Leaks Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
19 © UNEP 2006 Total leakage calculation: T = on-load time (minutes) t = off-load time (minutes) Well maintained system: less than 10% leakages Leak Quantification Method Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Leakage (%) = [(T x 100) / (T + t)]
20 © UNEP 2006 Shut off compressed air operated equipments Run compressor to charge the system to set pressure of operation Note the time taken for “Load” and “Unload” cycles Calculate quantity of leakage (previous slide) If Q is actual free air supplied during trial (m3/min), then: Quantifying leaks on the shop floor Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors System leakage (m3/minute) = Q × T / (T + t)
21 © UNEP 2006 Compressor capacity (m3/minute) = 35 Cut in pressure, kg/cm2 = 6.8 Cut out pressure, kg/cm2 = 7.5 Load kW drawn = 188 kW Unload kW drawn = 54 kW Average ‘Load’ time =1.5 min Average ‘Unload’ time = 10.5 min Example Assessment of Compressors Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Leakage = [(1.5)/( )] x 35 = m3/minute
22 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Compressor Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Introduction Types of compressors Assessment of compressors and compressed air systems Energy efficiency opportunities
23 © UNEP 2006 Significant influence on energy use Energy Efficiency Opportunities Electrical Equipment/ Compressors 1. Location 2. Elevation Higher altitude = lower volumetric efficiency
24 © UNEP Air Intake Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Keep intake air free from contaminants, dust or moist Keep intake air temperature low Every 4 o C rise in inlet air temperature = 1% higher energy consumption Keep ambient temperature low when an intake air filter is located at the compressor Energy Efficiency Opportunities
25 © UNEP Pressure Drops in Air Filter Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Install filter in cool location or draw air from cool location Keep pressure drop across intake air filter to a minimum Every 250 mm WC pressure drop = 2% higher energy consumption Energy Efficiency Opportunities
26 © UNEP Use Inter and After Coolers Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Inlet air temperature rises at each stage of multi-stage machine Inter coolers: heat exchangers that remove heat between stages After coolers: reduce air temperature after final stage Use water at lower temperature: reduce power Energy Efficiency Opportunities
27 © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Higher pressure More power by compressors Lower volumetric efficiency Operating above operating pressures Waste of energy Excessive wear Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Pressure Settings
28 © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors a. Reducing delivery pressure Operating a compressor at 120 PSIG instead of 100 PSIG: 10% less energy and reduced leakage rate Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Pressure Settings b. Compressor modulation by optimum pressure settings Applicable when different compressors connected c. Segregating high/low pressure requirements Pressure reducing valves no longer needed
29 © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors d. Design for minimum pressure drop in the distribution line Pressure drop: reduction in air pressure from the compressor discharge to the point of use Pressure drop < 10% Pressure drops caused by corrosion inadequate sized piping, couplings hoses choked filter elements Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Pressure Settings
30 © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors d. Design for minimum pressure drop in the distribution line Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Pressure Settings Typical pressure drop in compressed air line for different pipe size (Confederation of Indian Industries)
31 © UNEP Minimizing Leakage Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Use ultrasonic acoustic detector Tighten joints and connections Replace faulty equipment 8. Condensate Removal Condensate formed as after-cooler reduces discharge air temperature Install condensate separator trap to remove condensate Energy Efficiency Opportunities
32 © UNEP Controlled usage Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Do not use for low-pressure applications: agitation, combustion air, pneumatic conveying Use blowers instead 10. Compressor controls Automatically turns off compressor when not needed Energy Efficiency Opportunities
33 © UNEP Maintenance Practices Electrical Equipment/ Compressors Lubrication: Checked regularly Air filters: Replaced regularly Condensate traps: Ensure drainage Air dryers: Inspect and replace filters Energy Efficiency Opportunities
34 Training Session on Energy Equipment Compressors & Compressed Air Systems THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION © UNEP GERIAP Electrical Equipment/ Compressors
35 Electrical Equipment/ Compressors © UNEP 2006 Disclaimer and References This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific” (GERIAP). While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced, UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication. © UNEP, The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on
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