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QSAR-based Prediction of Inhalation Toxicity Kendall B. Wallace, Eli Petkova, Gilman D. Veith University of Minnesota – Duluth Medical School & International.

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Presentation on theme: "QSAR-based Prediction of Inhalation Toxicity Kendall B. Wallace, Eli Petkova, Gilman D. Veith University of Minnesota – Duluth Medical School & International."— Presentation transcript:

1 QSAR-based Prediction of Inhalation Toxicity Kendall B. Wallace, Eli Petkova, Gilman D. Veith University of Minnesota – Duluth Medical School & International QSAR Foundation Incorporating elements of dosimetry and reactivity to predict biological response

2 Human Airway Chemical disposition (free vapor)- VP Sol H2O Chemical Reactivity Biological Response - Protein adduct - immune surveillance  Asthma, T-cell mediated hypersensitivity  Irritation/inflammation /tissue necrosis

3 Factors affecting pulmonary response Chem NameWater Solubility Chemical Reactivity Pulmonary Toxicity AcetaldehydeHighModerateUpper airways AmmoniaHigh Upper airways ChlorineModerateHighLarge and intermediate airways Phosgene Isocyanates LowHighLower terminal airways Carbon monoxide Low none

4  Although inhalation toxicity data have been compiled in selected open access databases, the entries are limited and have seldom been subjected to rigorous peer review.  Thus, although these databases may suffice for general reference purposes, the data is frequently ambiguous and of questionable quality.  As a result, models of inhalation toxicity derived from these databases have largely been unsuccessful and doubts have been cast regarding the validity of QSAR approaches to inhalation toxicology. The QSAR Inhalation Toxicity Database

5  The inhalation toxicity database (ITDB) is an effort to compile high quality inhalation data published in the open literature and government reports as well as publicly available unpublished toxicity reports using strict Q/A standards.  ITDB has a goal of eventually becoming an international and widely distributed resource for high quality inhalation toxicity data that can be used to better characterize inhalation toxicity with minimal animal testing. The Inhalation Toxicity Database

6  We have embarked on compiling an exhaustive mammalian inhalation toxicity database using strict standards of peer review to insure only high-quality studies are included.  Currently focus on acute (4 hr) inhalation by rats  About 200 unique chemicals, 86 – tested for acute toxicity in rat/4h  Limited short-term mouse data  Expanding to include other species as well as repeat exposure and chronic inhalation data  Preliminary analyses of the database.………. Current Status of the ITDB

7 Modeling Assumptions Obstructive disorders –Low vapor pressure –High water solubility –High chemical reactivity Restrictive disorders –Low vapor pressure –Low water solubility –High chemical reactivity MoA - specific disease Non-specific, narcotic-like effects –Low vapor pressure –Low water solubility –Low chemical reactivity

8 LC50/rat/4h vs Vapor Pressure Data was compiled from the literature. From mid 50s to present * All chemicals tested as vapors ** Consistent exposure conditions *** Different rat strains * Guidelines somewhat vary with time **Specified (aimed ) in the experiment but sometimes might not be truth ***Exposure time constant, number of animals and observation periods vary LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

9 LC50 /rat/4h vs Vapor Pressure for chemicals previously classified as NON-REACTIVE LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

10 HYDROCARBONS HYDROCARBONS are a good examples for narcosis Nonane, hexane, isoprene, butadiene, isobutylene, butane, 2-metylpentene-1, 2-metylpentene-2, styrene LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

11 No similar relationship of LC50/VP for NITRITES Vapor pressure, mmHg LC50, mmol / m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

12 LC50/VP relationship for AMINES LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg Allylamine, CAS

13 ACRYLATES & METHACRYLATES LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

14 For ACRYLATES & METHACRYLATES there is no relationship with Vapor Pressure but significant correlation with GSH reactivity LC50 vs GSH reactivity for acrylates and methacrylates LC50, mmol/m3 Vapor Pressure, mmHg LC50, mmol/m3 EC50, mM

15 Solubility in air and Lethal Concentration vs Vapor Pressure for narcotics (rat/4h) Solubility in Air / LC50 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

16 Solubility in air and Lethal Concentration vs Vapor Pressure for ethers (mouse//15 min) Solubility in Air / LC50 Vapor Pressure, mmHg

17  Fish and mammal inhalation baseline toxicity are not directly comparable because the external media are different  However, blood thermodynamic activity for LC50(nar) is the same in fish and mammal  At steady-state, the activity in air/water equals the activity in blood by definition : α = С x γ α – activity; C- concentration; γ-activity coefficient Baseline Toxicity

18  The thermodynamic activity at any concentration can be estimated by dividing by the solubility in the medium  activity for narcosis in fish = LC50(fish)/water solubility activity for narcosis in rat = LC50 (rat)/air solubility  if activity for narcosis in fish and rat were equal, the plot of LC50 versus solubility in exposure medium should be the same Baseline Toxicity

19 Solubility in Water or Air vs LC50 in Fish or Rat (combined)

20 LC50rat vs LC50fish*Kh

21 LogLC50 for fish or rat vs Solubility in water or air

22 2.5 Endocrine active industrial chemicals: Release and occurrence in the environment Concentration response curves for all mixture components

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