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BAQ 2006 Conference1 Public Transport Crisis in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: failure of appropriate government policy responsible for congestion and air pollution!

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Presentation on theme: "BAQ 2006 Conference1 Public Transport Crisis in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: failure of appropriate government policy responsible for congestion and air pollution!"— Presentation transcript:

1 BAQ 2006 Conference1 Public Transport Crisis in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: failure of appropriate government policy responsible for congestion and air pollution! M. Shafiq-Ur Rahman Assistant Professor, Urban & Regional Planning Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh and Chairman, SusTrans Bangladesh Email:

2 BAQ 2006 Conference2 Transport in Dhaka City  Area: 2,000 sq. k.m.  Population: 12 million (2004) 24 million by 2021  Least motorized of the world! 30 MVs/1000 population 325,000 MVs Automobile usage: 8% population  Only 2547 bus!  No Bicycle!!!  Walking & Rickshaw

3 BAQ 2006 Conference3 Public Transport Crisis Anxious passengers waiting for bus, struggling to get in, overcrowded bus.

4 BAQ 2006 Conference4 Public Transport Crisis Congestion, Poor management, Inefficient road use, Mixed traffic, Air pollution

5 BAQ 2006 Conference5 Number of Vehicles

6 BAQ 2006 Conference6 Modal Share

7 BAQ 2006 Conference7 Modal Share Rickshaw is considerably cheaper than taxi and baby-taxi, but significantly expensive than tempo and bus.

8 BAQ 2006 Conference8 Motorized Vehicle Growth  Increasing Motorized Vehicles…….  Annual growth rate over 10%.

9 BAQ 2006 Conference9 Number of Motorized Vehicles Public Transport

10 BAQ 2006 Conference10 What is growing most ???

11 BAQ 2006 Conference11 Air Pollution in Dhaka City  Average weekly concentration at Farmgate Commercial Area in 1998 (DoE,2000): PM: 2459 µg/m3 NOx: 61 µg/m3 SO2: 121 µg/m3.  Highest concentration at Tejgoan Industrial Area in 1990s (Rahman,,1999; Khuda,2001): PM: 630 µg/m3 SO2: 64-142 µg/m3 NOx: 58.9 µg/m3.  Except NOx all others exceed the standard limit. Location Average Concentration µ/g 3 SPMSO 2 NO x Hatkhola101322.8937.89 Farmgate194224.0061.03 Gulshan109648.8852.41 Mohakhali168458.1444.17 Air Quality in Selected Locations of Dhaka Source: DoE, 2005.  Air pollution in Bangladesh kills about 15,000 people, loss $200-$800 million each year (about 0.7%- 3% of GNP).  Dhaka is one of the most polluted cities of the world. Lead concentration in 1996 (Khaliquzzaman, et. al, 1997): Dhaka: 463 µg/m3; Mexico City: 383 µg/m3; Mumbai,India: 360 µg/m3.

12 BAQ 2006 Conference12 Ambient Air Quality Standards CategorySPMSO 2 CONO x Industrial area/ mixed use 500200 [1] [1] 5000100 Commercial area/ mixed use 4001005000100 Residential area20080200080 Sensitive[2] area[2]10030100030 [1][1] Bangladesh National Standard is 120µg/m 3. [2][2] National monuments, hospitals, educational institutions. [3][3] Not to be exceeded more than once per year. [4][4] Annual average value will be <= 50 microgram/cubic meter. [5][5] Average will be <= 150 microgram/cubic meter for a day each year. [6][6] Maximum average for every 1 hr each year will be =< 0.12ppm. Dhaka Standards (microgram/m3). PollutantsStandardsAvg. Time CO 10 mg/m 3 (9 ppm) ([3])[3] 8-hour 40 mg/m 3 (35 ppm) (6) 1-hour Lead (Pb)0.5 µg/m 3 Annual NO x 100 µg/m 3 (0.053 ppm)Annual SPM200 µg/m 3 8-hour PM 10 50 µg/m 3 ([4])[4] Annual 150 µg/m 3 ([5])[5] 24-hour PM 2.5 15 µg/m 3 Annual 65 µg/m 3 24-hour Ozone (O 3 ) 235 µg/m 3 (0.12 ppm) ([6])[6] 1-hour 157 µg/m 3 (0.08 ppm)8-hour SO 2 80 µg/m 3 (0.03 ppm)Annual 365 µg/m 3 (0.14 ppm) (5) 24-hour Bangladesh Standards in 1997. Source: GoB, 2005. Source: DoE, 2005.

13 BAQ 2006 Conference13 Transport and Air Pollution  MVs are the chief mobile source of air pollution in urban areas.  Everyday 1000 MT pollutants pumped into Dhaka’s air, of which 70% comes from transport (BCL,2005).  Transport sector exhausts about 55% of SO2, 70% of NO2, & 60% of CO emissions in Dhaka City (CPD,2004). High vehicular emissions Diesel-powered engines Two-stroke engines High content of lead (0.84 gm/litre) in gasoline High sulphur concentration in petroleum fuel (blend of gasoline & lubricating oil) Old & mechanically defective vehicles Overall poor traffic management.  Automobile exhausts about 50-90% of lead emissions in Dhaka (Khuda,2001). BPC supplies sulphur free petrol but diesel containing 1% sulphur per litre whilst international standard is only 0.2%. Vehicle TypePollutants (%) SO 2 NO x CO Car232141 Bus23324 Jeep142218 Truck17223 Motorcycle405 Human Haller203 Baby-taxi17326 TOTAL100 Pollutants Emitted from Vehicles. Source: Jaigirdar, 1998.

14 BAQ 2006 Conference14 Transport Policy Policy for Rich !!?? Banned Rickshaw, No alternative for mass people, 25% NMT users compelled to walk, Increased travel time & cost, Bus speed reduced 3.8km/hr, Traffic volume (PCE) reduced, Rich people enjoy the benefits.  Long term vision for sustainability of transport is absent. NMT is seen as hindering motorized traffic flows.

15 BAQ 2006 Conference15 Transport Policy  Enforcement is completely absent. Clause 150 of Motor Transport Act, 1983.  Government has not yet initiated for any restriction of baby-taxi or private cars. A complete absence of road use charge, parking charge, and congestion charge.  Two-stroke baby-taxis have been banned in 1 January 2003; and replaced them by CNG operated 4-stroke baby-taxis. Lost the opportunity to improve the environment and affordable public transport service, and reduce congestion simultaneously. Is possible to satisfy the travel demand ?? × √ Desirable?

16 BAQ 2006 Conference16 Policy Recommendations Much of the pollution and congestion could be reduced through  Develop mass public transport, promote walking, cycling, & NMT.  Restrict car use, and introduce road use charging.  Efficient traffic management.  Strict enforcement of regulations, immediate screen-out of unfit vehicles, and complete ban on two-stroke engine. Monitoring to detect faulty vehicles & penalize the violators.  Use lead or sulphur free CLEAN fuel. Conversion of petrol-engine to CNG-engine could reduce 80% smoke and emissions.  Install Catalytic Converters to reduce vehicle emissions.  Polluter must pay for the social cost and that money should be earmarked for air pollution reduction.  Media campaign to increase people’s awareness and participation.  Meaningful coordination among related agencies & departments.  Develop secondary cities to reduce population growth, economic concentration, and travel pressure in Dhaka.

17 BAQ 2006 Conference17 Thank You !

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