Presentation on theme: "BAQ 2006 Conference1 Public Transport Crisis in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: failure of appropriate government policy responsible for congestion and air pollution!"— Presentation transcript:
BAQ 2006 Conference1 Public Transport Crisis in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: failure of appropriate government policy responsible for congestion and air pollution! M. Shafiq-Ur Rahman Assistant Professor, Urban & Regional Planning Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh and Chairman, SusTrans Bangladesh Email: email@example.com
BAQ 2006 Conference2 Transport in Dhaka City Area: 2,000 sq. k.m. Population: 12 million (2004) 24 million by 2021 Least motorized of the world! 30 MVs/1000 population 325,000 MVs Automobile usage: 8% population Only 2547 bus! No Bicycle!!! Walking & Rickshaw
BAQ 2006 Conference3 Public Transport Crisis Anxious passengers waiting for bus, struggling to get in, overcrowded bus.
BAQ 2006 Conference4 Public Transport Crisis Congestion, Poor management, Inefficient road use, Mixed traffic, Air pollution
BAQ 2006 Conference11 Air Pollution in Dhaka City Average weekly concentration at Farmgate Commercial Area in 1998 (DoE,2000): PM: 2459 µg/m3 NOx: 61 µg/m3 SO2: 121 µg/m3. Highest concentration at Tejgoan Industrial Area in 1990s (Rahman,et.al,1999; Khuda,2001): PM: 630 µg/m3 SO2: 64-142 µg/m3 NOx: 58.9 µg/m3. Except NOx all others exceed the standard limit. Location Average Concentration µ/g 3 SPMSO 2 NO x Hatkhola101322.8937.89 Farmgate194224.0061.03 Gulshan109648.8852.41 Mohakhali168458.1444.17 Air Quality in Selected Locations of Dhaka Source: DoE, 2005. Air pollution in Bangladesh kills about 15,000 people, loss $200-$800 million each year (about 0.7%- 3% of GNP). Dhaka is one of the most polluted cities of the world. Lead concentration in 1996 (Khaliquzzaman, et. al, 1997): Dhaka: 463 µg/m3; Mexico City: 383 µg/m3; Mumbai,India: 360 µg/m3.
BAQ 2006 Conference12 Ambient Air Quality Standards CategorySPMSO 2 CONO x Industrial area/ mixed use 500200   5000100 Commercial area/ mixed use 4001005000100 Residential area20080200080 Sensitive area10030100030  Bangladesh National Standard is 120µg/m 3.  National monuments, hospitals, educational institutions.  Not to be exceeded more than once per year.  Annual average value will be <= 50 microgram/cubic meter.  Average will be <= 150 microgram/cubic meter for a day each year.  Maximum average for every 1 hr each year will be =< 0.12ppm. Dhaka Standards (microgram/m3). PollutantsStandardsAvg. Time CO 10 mg/m 3 (9 ppm) () 8-hour 40 mg/m 3 (35 ppm) (6) 1-hour Lead (Pb)0.5 µg/m 3 Annual NO x 100 µg/m 3 (0.053 ppm)Annual SPM200 µg/m 3 8-hour PM 10 50 µg/m 3 () Annual 150 µg/m 3 () 24-hour PM 2.5 15 µg/m 3 Annual 65 µg/m 3 24-hour Ozone (O 3 ) 235 µg/m 3 (0.12 ppm) () 1-hour 157 µg/m 3 (0.08 ppm)8-hour SO 2 80 µg/m 3 (0.03 ppm)Annual 365 µg/m 3 (0.14 ppm) (5) 24-hour Bangladesh Standards in 1997. Source: GoB, 2005. Source: DoE, 2005.
BAQ 2006 Conference13 Transport and Air Pollution MVs are the chief mobile source of air pollution in urban areas. Everyday 1000 MT pollutants pumped into Dhaka’s air, of which 70% comes from transport (BCL,2005). Transport sector exhausts about 55% of SO2, 70% of NO2, & 60% of CO emissions in Dhaka City (CPD,2004). High vehicular emissions Diesel-powered engines Two-stroke engines High content of lead (0.84 gm/litre) in gasoline High sulphur concentration in petroleum fuel (blend of gasoline & lubricating oil) Old & mechanically defective vehicles Overall poor traffic management. Automobile exhausts about 50-90% of lead emissions in Dhaka (Khuda,2001). BPC supplies sulphur free petrol but diesel containing 1% sulphur per litre whilst international standard is only 0.2%. Vehicle TypePollutants (%) SO 2 NO x CO Car232141 Bus23324 Jeep142218 Truck17223 Motorcycle405 Human Haller203 Baby-taxi17326 TOTAL100 Pollutants Emitted from Vehicles. Source: Jaigirdar, 1998.
BAQ 2006 Conference14 Transport Policy Policy for Rich !!?? Banned Rickshaw, No alternative for mass people, 25% NMT users compelled to walk, Increased travel time & cost, Bus speed reduced 3.8km/hr, Traffic volume (PCE) reduced, Rich people enjoy the benefits. Long term vision for sustainability of transport is absent. NMT is seen as hindering motorized traffic flows.
BAQ 2006 Conference15 Transport Policy Enforcement is completely absent. Clause 150 of Motor Transport Act, 1983. Government has not yet initiated for any restriction of baby-taxi or private cars. A complete absence of road use charge, parking charge, and congestion charge. Two-stroke baby-taxis have been banned in 1 January 2003; and replaced them by CNG operated 4-stroke baby-taxis. Lost the opportunity to improve the environment and affordable public transport service, and reduce congestion simultaneously. Is possible to satisfy the travel demand ?? × √ Desirable?
BAQ 2006 Conference16 Policy Recommendations Much of the pollution and congestion could be reduced through Develop mass public transport, promote walking, cycling, & NMT. Restrict car use, and introduce road use charging. Efficient traffic management. Strict enforcement of regulations, immediate screen-out of unfit vehicles, and complete ban on two-stroke engine. Monitoring to detect faulty vehicles & penalize the violators. Use lead or sulphur free CLEAN fuel. Conversion of petrol-engine to CNG-engine could reduce 80% smoke and emissions. Install Catalytic Converters to reduce vehicle emissions. Polluter must pay for the social cost and that money should be earmarked for air pollution reduction. Media campaign to increase people’s awareness and participation. Meaningful coordination among related agencies & departments. Develop secondary cities to reduce population growth, economic concentration, and travel pressure in Dhaka.