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Technological behaviour and competitiveness at the firm level, empirical evidence from Mexico. Salvador Estrada    Ph. D. Student. Interuniversity Programme.

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Presentation on theme: "Technological behaviour and competitiveness at the firm level, empirical evidence from Mexico. Salvador Estrada    Ph. D. Student. Interuniversity Programme."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technological behaviour and competitiveness at the firm level, empirical evidence from Mexico. Salvador Estrada    Ph. D. Student. Interuniversity Programme in Economics and Management of Innovation and Technological Policy. UAM-UCM-UPM. Madrid. Research staff. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero (IAIF Institute of Industrial and Financial Analysis). Scholarship holder. National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT). Mexico. Email to: sestrada@ccee.ucm.es

2 Thesis In developing countries, firms’ techological behaviour influences international competitiveness and firm specific characteristics affect the possibilities to translate technological efforts into competitive advantages. http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

3 Theorical framework Conventional theories of trade Factor endowments Country similarities Economies of scale Product cycle Neotechnological theories of trade Gap theory and technological capability approach http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

4 Methodological issues Classification rules: membership and likelihood. Classification accuracy and confidence. Computational easiness. Forward step-wise: irrelevant and redundant information. S=, where S is the information system, U is a finite set of objects, called the universe, A is a finite set of attributes, and f is the classification function. http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

5 Data Source: Guanajuato’s Survey on R&D, tecnhological activities and innovation 1999 (INEGI-CONCYTEG) http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

6 Set of attributes 1/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test DEPENDENT VARIABLE EXPORT STATUS 1 = Exporting plant, 0 = otherwise0,320,47 STRUCTURE SIZENumber of employees150,01296,21*** AGENumber of years since stablished13,8013,96*** FEQUITYPercentage of foreign equity in firm6,1923,72*** TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION MACH99Percentage of sales devoted to machinery and equipment purchases 7,3213,45*** DISTECH99Percentage of sales devoted to disembodied technology purchases 0,562,35*** TECHSERV 1 = External technological services contracted, 0 = otherwise 0,230,42*** http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

7 Set of attributes 2/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test TECHNOLOGICAL //INNOVATIVE// ADAPTIVE EFFORTS // ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY FR&D 1 = Formal R&D activity, 0 = otherwise0,060,23 ** R&D Percentage of sales devoted to R&D expenditures0,271,51 NS ENGINEERSPercentage of personnel holding an engineering degree3,9113,07 NS MKTINGPercentage of sales devoted to marketing of new products expenditures 0,151,60 * TRAININGPercentage of sales devoted to training expenditures related to new products 0,020,15 NS DESIGNPercentage of sales devoted to design, engineering and tooling up expenditures 0,402,93 NS INNOVATIVE SCOPE // RESULTS // IMPACT // PRODUCT POLICY NEWPRODNumber of new products introduced during last three years 0,893,62 NS IMPROVEDIntensity of improved products on sales18,1031,31 ** SALES1Intensity of a single product or line product on sales73,4125,24 *** http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

8 Set of attributes 3/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT // LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITY PAVITT*** TCG= 1 if firm belongs to a Producer of traditional consumer goods sector 0,47 SS = 2 if firm belongs to a Specialised supplier of intermediate goods and equipment sector 0,20 SI = 3 if firm belongs to a Scale intensive and mass assembly sector0,03 SB = 4 if firm belongs to a Science based sector0,15 TIG (R.C.)firms belonging to a Producer of traditional intermediate goods sector (REF. CATEGORY) 0,15 http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

9 Classification function A binary response model: Pr ( Yi=1 /Xji ) = 1/ [1 + e –z ] Where Z = constant +  size –  size**2 +  fequity +  r&d +  engineers +  techserv –  improved –  newprod +  sales1 +  pavitt - 2 L.L.974,547 Chi-squared (d.f.) 386,997 (8) *** Pseudo r2 Nagelkerke Cox-Snell 0,30 0,42 % of correct classificated Non exporters79 Exporters69 Total76 http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

10 General Model vis-à-vis Diversity Variables GENERAL MODEL SIZEAGEPROPERTYSECTOR TECHSERV SMLYGO IND NG MNCTCG SSSISBNTSTS SIZE + ++NS ++++ ++ ++ SIZE2 - --NS --- - -- FEQUITY + ++++++++++ R&D + +NS + + + + ENGINEERS + +NS +++ ++-+++ TECHSERV + ++NS++++ ++ + IMPROVED - NS- - -+ - + - NEWPROD - NS-+- - --- +- SALES1 + NS- ++ - + + PAVITT * **NS**** ** TCG + +NS ++++ +++ SS + NS ++ r.c.NS+ SI + NS + + SB + NS + + + http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

11 Alternative models --++ - - VARIABLES Dimensions AGEMACH99DISTECH99MKTINGDESIGNTRAINING Size M (-) S (+)S (-) Age G (+) O (+) G (+)Y (+) Property IND (+) Sector TCG (-)SS (+)SS (-) TechServ TS (-)TS (+)TS (-) NTS (+) http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

12 Conclusions 1/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODALTMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries StructureSIZE + 10 + SIZE2 - 9 - 1 - FEQUITY + 2 + AGENS - (medium) 2NS 2 + 2 - AGE2NS1NS 1 - Non linear positive relationship with size. Inverted U shape. Critical threshold to asumme risks and costs. International networks. http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

13 Conclusions 2/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODALTMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Technology outsource MACH99NS - (TCG, TS) 2NS 2 + DISTECH99NS + (Older) 1NS 1 + TECHSERV + 1NS Techical services plays a critical role. http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

14 Conclusions 3/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODALTMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Technological Efforts R&D + 3 + 3NS 6 + 1NS 1 - ENGINEERS + 5 + 3 + 2NS MKTINGNS + (Grown-up, Independent, TS) - (medium) 2 - TRAININGNS - (Small, SS) 1NS 2 - DESIGNNS + (small, young, SS, NTS) - (TS) 2 + Absportive/Adaptive capacity to success http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

15 Conclusions 4/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Innovative Scope NEWPROD - 2 + 1NS IMPROVED - 1 + 1NS 1 - 1 + SALES1 + 1 + 1NS 3 - Influence of domestic demand http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

16 Conclusions 5/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Sectoral Influence TCG + 3 + 2NS 1 - 8 + 7NS 6 - SS + 2 + 2NS SI + 2 + 1NS 3NS SB + 1+1+ 2 + 1NS Cannot understate sectoral influences http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif

17 More and detailed information available at Estrada & Heijs (2003) Technological innovation and competitiveness : microanalysis of export behaviour at Mexico. Working paper. No. 36. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero. UCM. Madrid. http://www.ucm.es/bucm/cee/iaif sestrada@ccee.ucm.es


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