Presentation on theme: "Technological behaviour and competitiveness at the firm level, empirical evidence from Mexico. Salvador Estrada Ph. D. Student. Interuniversity Programme."— Presentation transcript:
Technological behaviour and competitiveness at the firm level, empirical evidence from Mexico. Salvador Estrada Ph. D. Student. Interuniversity Programme in Economics and Management of Innovation and Technological Policy. UAM-UCM-UPM. Madrid. Research staff. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero (IAIF Institute of Industrial and Financial Analysis). Scholarship holder. National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT). Mexico. to:
Thesis In developing countries, firms’ techological behaviour influences international competitiveness and firm specific characteristics affect the possibilities to translate technological efforts into competitive advantages.
Theorical framework Conventional theories of trade Factor endowments Country similarities Economies of scale Product cycle Neotechnological theories of trade Gap theory and technological capability approach
Methodological issues Classification rules: membership and likelihood. Classification accuracy and confidence. Computational easiness. Forward step-wise: irrelevant and redundant information. S=, where S is the information system, U is a finite set of objects, called the universe, A is a finite set of attributes, and f is the classification function.
Data Source: Guanajuato’s Survey on R&D, tecnhological activities and innovation 1999 (INEGI-CONCYTEG)
Set of attributes 1/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test DEPENDENT VARIABLE EXPORT STATUS 1 = Exporting plant, 0 = otherwise0,320,47 STRUCTURE SIZENumber of employees150,01296,21*** AGENumber of years since stablished13,8013,96*** FEQUITYPercentage of foreign equity in firm6,1923,72*** TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION MACH99Percentage of sales devoted to machinery and equipment purchases 7,3213,45*** DISTECH99Percentage of sales devoted to disembodied technology purchases 0,562,35*** TECHSERV 1 = External technological services contracted, 0 = otherwise 0,230,42***
Set of attributes 2/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test TECHNOLOGICAL //INNOVATIVE// ADAPTIVE EFFORTS // ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY FR&D 1 = Formal R&D activity, 0 = otherwise0,060,23 ** R&D Percentage of sales devoted to R&D expenditures0,271,51 NS ENGINEERSPercentage of personnel holding an engineering degree3,9113,07 NS MKTINGPercentage of sales devoted to marketing of new products expenditures 0,151,60 * TRAININGPercentage of sales devoted to training expenditures related to new products 0,020,15 NS DESIGNPercentage of sales devoted to design, engineering and tooling up expenditures 0,402,93 NS INNOVATIVE SCOPE // RESULTS // IMPACT // PRODUCT POLICY NEWPRODNumber of new products introduced during last three years 0,893,62 NS IMPROVEDIntensity of improved products on sales18,1031,31 ** SALES1Intensity of a single product or line product on sales73,4125,24 ***
Set of attributes 3/(3) VariablesDescriptionMeans.d.t (or Chi**2) test TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT // LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITY PAVITT*** TCG= 1 if firm belongs to a Producer of traditional consumer goods sector 0,47 SS = 2 if firm belongs to a Specialised supplier of intermediate goods and equipment sector 0,20 SI = 3 if firm belongs to a Scale intensive and mass assembly sector0,03 SB = 4 if firm belongs to a Science based sector0,15 TIG (R.C.)firms belonging to a Producer of traditional intermediate goods sector (REF. CATEGORY) 0,15
General Model vis-à-vis Diversity Variables GENERAL MODEL SIZEAGEPROPERTYSECTOR TECHSERV SMLYGO IND NG MNCTCG SSSISBNTSTS SIZE + ++NS SIZE2 - --NS FEQUITY R&D + +NS ENGINEERS + +NS TECHSERV + ++NS IMPROVED - NS NEWPROD - NS SALES1 + NS PAVITT * **NS**** ** TCG + +NS SS + NS ++ r.c.NS+ SI + NS + + SB + NS
Alternative models VARIABLES Dimensions AGEMACH99DISTECH99MKTINGDESIGNTRAINING Size M (-) S (+)S (-) Age G (+) O (+) G (+)Y (+) Property IND (+) Sector TCG (-)SS (+)SS (-) TechServ TS (-)TS (+)TS (-) NTS (+)
Conclusions 1/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODALTMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries StructureSIZE SIZE FEQUITY AGENS - (medium) 2NS AGE2NS1NS 1 - Non linear positive relationship with size. Inverted U shape. Critical threshold to asumme risks and costs. International networks.
Conclusions 2/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODALTMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Technology outsource MACH99NS - (TCG, TS) 2NS 2 + DISTECH99NS + (Older) 1NS 1 + TECHSERV + 1NS Techical services plays a critical role.
Conclusions 4/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Innovative Scope NEWPROD NS IMPROVED NS SALES NS 3 - Influence of domestic demand
Conclusions 5/(5) CategoriesVariablesGENMODEmpirical studies Advanced Countries Empirical studies Developing Countries Sectoral Influence TCG NS NS 6 - SS NS SI NS 3NS SB NS Cannot understate sectoral influences
More and detailed information available at Estrada & Heijs (2003) Technological innovation and competitiveness : microanalysis of export behaviour at Mexico. Working paper. No. 36. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero. UCM. Madrid.