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HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES WITH BIOMARKERS IN PALEOCEANOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH SPANISH.

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Presentation on theme: "HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES WITH BIOMARKERS IN PALEOCEANOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH SPANISH."— Presentation transcript:

1 HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES WITH BIOMARKERS IN PALEOCEANOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH SPANISH COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (CSIC) BARCELONA

2 WE ARE NOW THIS PEOPLE JOAN O. GRIMALT (Profesor de investigación) JORDI F. LOPEZ (Contracted post-doct) CONSTANCIA LOPEZ-MARTINEZ (Ph.D. student) MONTSERRAT FERRER (Ph.D. student) BELEN MARTRAT (Ph.D. student) TERESA RODRIGUES (Ph.D. student) MONTSERRAT ESPARZA (Ph.D. student) BEATRIZ LUENGO (technician)

3 THIS PEOPLE HAS ALSO BEEN ANTONI ROSELL-MELE, 1994 (in Bristol) JOAN VILLANUEVA. PhD CARLES PELEJERO. PhD ISABEL CACHO. PhD EVA CALVO. PhD. 2001

4 HIGH RESOLUTION STUDIES WITH BIOMARKERS IN PALEOCEANOGRAPHY Work with sediments Analysis of major compounds Analysis of stable compounds under early diagenesis

5 BIOMARKERS n-ALKANES ALKENONES and STEROLS n-ALKAN-1-OLS Higher plant inputs wind, rivers, vegetation changes Marine productivity, Water masses SST U K’ 37 = C 37:2 C 37:3 + C 37:2 U K’ 37 = SST

6 MD ODP-977 ODP-1060c MD

7 Velay T. Philippon GRIP testigo ODP-977A (la cuenca de Alboran) Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science ODP-980 NorthGRIP ODP-977A MD

8 altura (m) testigo ODP-977A (la cuenca de Alboran) ODP-977A Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science B. M.

9 Corriente de las Azores Corriente de las Canarias Modified Atlantic water (MAW) altura (m) Modelo de circulación oceánica alrededor de la Península Ibérica (aguas superficiales) Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science B. M.

10 materiales y métodos: alquenonas C 37 Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science Alquenona diinsaturada Alquenona triinsaturada Alquenona tetrainsaturada retention time respuesta SST=10.4ºC SST=20.8ºC

11 materiales y métodos: alquenonas C 37 Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science Müller et al., 1998, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Brassell et al., 1986, Nature Alquenona diinsaturada Alquenona triinsaturada Alquenona tetrainsaturada

12 ODP-977A GRIP-GISP2 NorthGRIP Registros ODP-977A versus hielo de Groenlandia Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science MD

13 Grootes et al., 1993, Nature MD Cacho et al., 1999, Paleoceanography Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science Registros ODP-977A versus hielo de Groenlandia (-1 climate cycle)

14 ODP-977A Dansgaard et al., 1993, Nature North GRIP members, 2004, Nature Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

15 ODP-977A Berger, 1978, J. Atmos. Sci. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science Registros ODP-977A versus hielo de Groenlandia ¿? (-2 climate cycle)

16 ODP-980 ODP-977A ODP-977A versus detritos líticos en el Atlántico Norte Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

17 ODP-977A McManus et al., 1999, Science Perez-Folgado et al., 2003, Mar. Micropaleontol. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science ODP-977A versus detritos líticos (-1 climate cycle)

18 ODP-977A McManus et al., 1999, Science Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science ODP-977A versus detritos líticos (-2 climate cycle)

19 Velay T. Philippon ODP-977A Registros ODP-977A versus polen Mediterráneo Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

20 ODP-977A ODP-977A versus polen Mediterráneo (-1 climate cycle) Reille et al., 2000, Quat. Sci. Tzedakis et al., 2003, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

21 ODP-977A ODP-977A versus polen Mediterráneo (-2 climate cycle) Reille et al., 2000, Quat. Sci. Tzedakis et al., 2003, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

22 ODP-977A Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science Berger, 1978, J. Atmos. Sci. Variabilidad climática a escala milenaria (-1 ciclo climático)

23 Berger, 1978, J. Atmos. Sci. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science ODP-977A Variabilidad climática a escala milenaria (-2 ciclo climático)

24 Over the last years abrupt climatic changes were more common at warmings than at coolings. Some of the most promiment changes occurred in the interglacial periods, after long periods of stability. After the last years the climate was at relatively stable warm periods (interglacials or interstadials) while the duration of the glacial periods was shorter. Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years Martrat et al., 2004, Science

25 Atmospheric CO 2 content GLACIAL INTERGLACIAL 90 ppm PRESENT LEVEL 90 ppm Atmospheric CO 2 (ppm)

26 CO 2 increase in the atmosphere is changing the climatic conditions of the planet Average atmospheric temperature is increasing Ice melting could lead to disturbance (interruption) of thermohaline circulation There are not examples in the recent past (last years) of a climatic situation with the present atmospheric composition in our planet We live within a climatic experiment in which our planet (and ourselves) are the experimental objects CO 2 keeps increasing 1.5 ppm per year at least

27 PUBLICATIONS In the last 10 years ( ) the group has published 50 papers in the leading international literature on paleoceanography Three relevant publications in 2004: 1.B. Martrat, J.O. Grimalt, C. Lopez-Martinez, I. Cacho, F.J. Sierro, J.A. Flores, R. Zahn, M. Canals, J.H. Curtis and D.A. Hodell Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years. Science 306, (2004) 2.J.F. Lopez and J.O. Grimalt. Phenyl- and cyclopentylimino derivatization for double bond location in unsaturated C37-C40 alkenones by GC-MS. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 15, (2004) 3.M.J. Vautravers, N.J. Shackleton, C. Lopez-Martinez and J.O. Grimalt. Gulf stream variability during marine isotope stage 3. Paleoceanography 19, PA2011, doi: /2003PA (2004)


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