2 The Emperor’s New Clothes Craig K. Harmon, President & CEO, Q.E.D. Systems
3 Q.E.D. Systems • Craig K. Harmon • President & CEO Visit our web sites: andChair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFIDChair, RFID Experts Group (REG)Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 “RFID”Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 (RFID - Air Interface )Chair, ASC MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable ContainersChair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging)Vice-chair, ASC MH 10 and U.S. TAG to ISO TC 122 (Packaging)Member, EPCglobal HAG (UHFGen2), FMCG BAG, HLS BAG, SAGPast Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (RFID) - ANS INCITS 256:1999, 2001JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R), International Air Transport Association (IATA), and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)ASC MH 10/SC 8 Liaison Universal Postal Union (UPU) Physical Encoding Group (PEG)Advisor and Member of U.S. Postal Service Strategic Technology CouncilISO TC 104 & 122 (Freight Containers / Packaging) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31Project Editor, ISO (Electronic Container Seal - Physical Layer)Chairman & Project Editor, ANS MH (Data Application Identifiers)Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31Co-chair, HIBCC Automatic Identification Technical Committee (AITC)AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, & RFID CommitteesProject Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product, Product Package, & Component MarkingOriginal Advisor, U.S. Department of Defense in Migration to Commercial StandardsOriginal Project Editor, NATO STANAG 2233 (RFID for NATO Asset Tracking)Standards Advisor, R1 - RFID China Forum (Cooperation of China, Korea, Japan)CompTIA Subject Matter Expert - Professional Skills Certification - RFIDCompTIA RFID Certified Professional (CRCP) - RFID+Recipient of the 2004 Richard Dilling Award
4 Microsoft RFID Myths There are no set Standards for RFID today. Replacing bar code-based processes with RFID processes will achieve ROIRFID benefits only retailers, not suppliers.RFID is the only way to automate manual receiving processes.The EPC is an RFID replacement of the current bar code (GTIN/U.P.C.).
5 Microsoft RFID MythsAdoption of RFID won’t require facility, equipment, and process changes.Only companies with metal and liquid products face readability challenges.Consistently reading every EPC on a pallet is easy.All RFID tags are the same.EPC technology can only be used for retail goods.
6 My Favorite Quote of Bill Gates People have a tendency to overestimate technology in the short term, and underestimate it in the long term.
8 Technical ObstaclesMultiple dock doors, multiple antennas/ interrogators, dense readers, overlapping signalsTag failurescaused by electrostatic discharge (25 kV) in handlingcaused by “slap and ship” operations that may detach the antenna from the chipcaused by poor manufacturing techniquesAssumption that it matters little where the tag is applied to the containerWhat to do in case of a tag failure
9 Material Effects on RFID Signals Materials in the RF field can have several effects:Reflection / refractionAbsorption (loss)Dielectric effects (detuning)Complex propagation effects
10 Material Effects on RFID Signals CorrugateAbsorption (moisture)Detuning (dielectric)Conductive liquids, e.g., shampooAbsorptionPlasticsMetalsReflectionGroups of cansTissue Human body / animals
11 Overcoming the SameOverlap - shielding, trip switches, antenna selection (ISO TR )Tag failure - care in applying tags, encode-print-applyPoor quality - ISO standards (currently in the REG) on tag manufacturing (ISO 9000ish) and tag quality measurementTag location - characterization of containers, dielectric backing, dielectric inserts, content-insensitive labels (ISO TR )Back-up - REG recommendations on bar code and human-readable (ISO TR )
12 Smart Label An RFID label contains several layers: Printable face-stockAdhesiveRFID inlay (chip + antenna)AdhesiveLinerCourtesy: Avery Dennison
13 Closer look at the RFID inlay AntennaMajor driver of read performanceDetermines how well an RFID label works with a certain productChipContains dataCourtesy: Avery Dennison
15 Its all about the dataInventory databases are currently structured with product codesNew technology should not require new dataOftentimes new data structures are simply means by which sponsors can secure revenue streamsRefresh technology when that technology becomes cost effectiveDo not “rush” into new data structures without understanding the impact on existing information systems
16 RFID vs Key-entry & Bar Code RFID is not a replacement for a bar code!!Use RFID where there is a positive ROIWhen analyzing your business process, which makes the most sense?ALWAYS HAVE A BACK-UP PLANWith RFID back-up, what is the key-entry solution:Keying 96 1s and 0s?32 octal character representation of binary data?29 decimal character representation of binary data?24 hexadecimal character representation of binary data?For bar code back-up, will you use existing bar codes or new ones?
17 SerializationEPC implementation requires re-engineering of your business processesExisting inventory data bases are product code not serial number drivenAppreciate the amount of additional data that you will be both filtering and processingEncoding existing serial numbers may be preferable to migration to a binary systemEPC does NOT require its serialization for its arbitration/anti-collision methods
18 Blocks vs Fields of Data Bar codes are one at a timeTwo-dimensional symbols are often blocks of dataData rich RF tags are blocks of dataSerial number only tags require data base / communications access to identify the dataAre your systems ready for these changes?Are you ready for the investment to enable these changes?
19 Implementation Issues Read zone controlApplication of tagsWhere in the processWhere on the containerHow are the labels being appliedUse ISO standards (avoid Class 0 and Class 1v1)EPC requires pre-population of data at the recipient (X / EDIFACT DESADV / XML) or access to the EPCISBack-up in case of tag failureRecyclingData concernsReturn on investment
22 AIDC Focused ISO Standards International Organization for Standardization (ISO)International ElectrotechnicalCommission (IEC)Technical Committee (TC)122 (Packaging)ISO/IEC Joint TechnicalCommittee 1 (JTC 1) - ITWG 4(Transport Labels)WG 7(Package Labels)ISO/IEC JTC 1Subcommittee 31SecretariatUniform Code Council (UCC)National Body (NB)Technical Advisory Groups (TAG)WG 1Data CarrierWG 2Data StructureWG 3ConformanceWG 4RF TagsWG 5RTLSU.S. TAG AdministratorMHIConvenerS. Ackley (US)ConvenerT. Yoshioka (JP)ConvenerC. Biss (US)ConvenerH. BarthelConvenerM. HarmonShipping LabelsCode 39DAILinear Print QualityAir InterfaceAPIITFData Syntax2D Print QualityUnique RF Tag ID2450 MHzProduct Package MarkingMaxiCodeUnique IDPrinting SpecsDefs. Logical Mem Map433 MHzGLSData MatrixTest Specs BC PrintersApplication InterfaceNear FieldTest Specs BC ReadersDimensions & LayoutEAN/U.P.C.Encoding RulesCode 128Test Specs BC VerifiersSymbology Use (Linear & 2D)PDF417RFID PerformanceQR CodeRFID ConformancePrint Quality LevelSymbology IdentifiersLabel MaterialsLicense Plate RecommendationsDatabase / EDI IssuesTechnical Committee (TC) 104(Freight Containers)JWG - Supply ChainApplications of RFID
23 Types of Standards Technology Data Content Conformance Symbology, RFID, I.C. CardData ContentSemantics (DIs or AIs), SyntaxConformancePrint Quality, Test Specifications, Conformance to Air InterfaceApplication StandardsFreight container, RTI, Ship Label, Product Package, Product Mark/Tag, eSealMost industrial and commercial manufacturers have catalog or part numbers already assigned to their products. They often question the need for an additional number, thinking that their distributors and/or end customers should use their supplier assigned catalog or part numbers. Following are some of the reasons why UPC numbers are needed:UCC.QED.I.10
24 Working Group (WG) 4 RFID for Item Management ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture TechniquesWorking Group (WG) 4 RFID for Item Management
25 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31Charted to work on technical specifications “JTC 1 was established in 1987 for 'standardization in the field of information technology systems ... and equipment ...(with the exclusion of) information technology for specific applications….” [jtc1n6778]JTC 1 is comprised of both ISO and IECSC 31 is chartered to work on automatic data capture technical specifications
26 Technical Standards Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3RFID for Item Management Air Interface (ISO 18000)ISO/IEC Generic parameters - Air interfaceISO/IEC Parameters for air interface below 135 kHzISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHzISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at 2.45 GHzISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHzISO/IEC Parameters for active air interface at MHz
27 Data Content Standards ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 2 & WG 4/SG 1 ISO/IEC Data Carrier/Symbology IdentifiersISO/IEC EAN.UCC Application Identifiers and ASC MH 10 Data IdentifiersISO/IEC Syntax for High Capacity ADC MediaISO/IEC Unique identification - Part 1: Transport units; Part 2: Registration procedures; Part 3: Common rules; Part 4: Unique Item identification for supply chain management; Unique identification - Part 5: Returnable transport items;ISO/IEC Data protocol: Application interfaceISO/IEC Protocol: Data encoding rules and logical memory functionsISO/IEC Unique ID of RF Tag
28 Conformance Standards Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 3/SG 1 ISO/IEC RFID Device Performance Test MethodsISO/IEC RFID Device Conformance Test MethodsPart 2 - <135 kHzPart MHzPart GHzPart MHzPart MHz
29 ISO TC 122/104 Joint Working Group (JWG) (Supply chain applications of RFID)
30 The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) Movement Vehicle(truck, airplane, ship, train)Layer 4 (433 MHz) ISO (Freight containers)Container(e.g., 40 foot Sea Container)Layer 3 ( MHz) (Other with TPA) ISO (Returnable transport items)Unit Load“Pallet”Unit Load“Pallet”Layer 2 ( MHz) ISO (Transport units)TransportUnitTransportUnitTransportUnitTransportUnitLayer 1 ( MHz) ISO (Product packages)PkgPkgPkgPkgPkgPkgPkgPkgLayer 0 ( MHz) (13.56 MHz with TPA) ISO (Product tagging)ItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemItemSource: Akira Shibata, DENSO-Wave Corporation“TPA” - Trading Partner Agreement
31 ISO TC 122/104 JWG project status ISO , Freight containers — RF automatic identificationIS Issued 1991, AmdCD expectedISO 17363, Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containersDIS expectedISO 17364, Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable transport itemsISO 17365, Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport unitsISO 17366, Supply chain applications of RFID - Product packagingISO 17367, Supply chain applications of RFID - Product tagging
32 Application Standards Radio Frequency Identification - Open Standards ISO Freight containers — Automatic identificationISO Freight Containers - Radio-frequency communication protocol for electronic sealISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Code StructureISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Technical ConceptISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Advanced Transponders - Part 1: Air InterfaceISO – Gas Cylinders - Identification and Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology - Part 1: Reference Architecture and TerminologyISO – Gas Cylinders - Identification and Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology - Part 2: Numbering Schemes for Radio FrequencyANSI MH RFID for Returnable ContainersAIAG B-11 - Tire & Wheel Identification StandardISO 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFIDISO Freight containersISO Returnable transport itemsISO Transport unitsISO Product packagingISO Product tagging
33 Sealing and anti-tamper capability Bolt Seal Security TagElectronically secures ocean containers, air cargo ULD containers, trailers,Monitors presence and integrity of bolt seal, generates alarm upon bolt removal or breakageRe-usable tagReduces manual inspectionsMinimizes theft, loss and tampering
34 Conformance Standards Technology StandardsRadio Frequency Identification Open StandardsISO/IEC RFID for Item ManagementPart kHzPart MHzPart MHzPart MHzPart MHz (active)Data StandardsISO/IEC Application Identifiers & Data IdentifiersISO/IEC SyntaxISO/IEC Unique Item IdentificationISO/IEC Data Protocol: Application InterfaceISO/IEC Data Protocol: Data Encoding Rules andLogical Memory FunctionsISO/IEC Unique Identification for RF TagsConformance StandardsISO/IEC RFID device conformance test methods (at)Part kHzPart MHzPart MHzPart MHzPart MHz (active)
35 ISO StandardsISO has published air interface, data structure, and conformance standardsISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 28 countries that actively participate in standards development including China, Korea, and JapanISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 28 other regional and international organizations with which it cooperates in liaisonISO follows established rules and engages all member countries in voting and comments to developing standardsISO is open
37 Instant Checkout…A Dream Come True?? “Chip to remove shopping blues”—Post-Courier, January 1994“1.5¢ electronic bar code announced”—San Francisco Chronicle“Tiny microchip identifies groceries in seconds.”—Chicago Tribune“Scanning range of four yards”—NY Times“Checkout in one minute”—The Times, London
38 Inflated Expectations The Hype CyclePeak ofInflated ExpectationsRFID Today!VisibilityPlateau ofProductivitySlope ofEnlightenmentJackie Fenn noted that there was an inverse relationship between the publicity a technology receives and its level of usage. When a technology is new, it is exciting and by definition novel, and there is a lot of interest in it. It gets a lot of exposure. The press write about it, the analysts pontificate on it, the consultants start practices based on it.Gartner's hype cycle is actually a five-part sequence:Technology trigger. A breakthrough, public demonstration, product launch or other event that generates significant press and industry interest.Peak of inflated expectations. A phase of overenthusiasm and unrealistic projections during which a flurry of publicized activity by technology leaders results in some successes but more failures as the technology is pushed to its limits. The only enterprises making money at this stage are conference organizers and magazine publishers.Trough of disillusionment. The point at which the technology becomes unfashionable and the press abandons the topic, because the technology did not live up to its overinflated expectations.Slope of enlightenment. Focused experimentation and solid hard work by an increasingly diverse range of organizations lead to a true understanding of the technology's applicability, risks and benefits. Commercial off-the-shelf methodologies and tools become available to ease the development process.Plateau of productivity. The real-world benefits of the technology are demonstrated and accepted. Tools and methodologies are increasingly stable as they enter their second and third generation. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or only benefits a niche market.Trough ofDisillusionmentTechnology TriggerTimeSource: Jackie Fenn, Gartner Group
39 Which Technology How far? How fast? How many? How much? Geometry of tagging spaceInterferers (physical and radio)
40 How far, how fast, how many, how much, attached to what?
41 Recent Developments 860 - 960 MHz Includes Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) bandTechnology enhancement (frequency agile and listen before talk) permitsMHz used in Region 2 (U.S.)MHz nearing finalization in Region 1 (Europe)MHz regulations finalized in Region 3 (Korea)MHz regulations in process in Region 3 (Japan - Jul ‘05)Engaging China to develop “in band” regulations (regulations expected by 1 September 2005)ISO/IEC ( MHz) re-opened to address new developments, such as Gen2
42 Recent Developments 433.92 MHz ISM band permitted by ITU (implemented in Region 1 but for different parameters in Regions 2 and 3)ITU receptive to Regions 2 and 3 supporting Region 1 for a 433 MHz allocation for freight containersChairman of ISO TC 104 (Freight containers) has made request to ITU and WCO to embrace both passive ( ) and active ( MHz) calling out andApproved in KoreaApproval expected in Japan (Nov ‘05)Received support through new (April 2004) FCC rules, specific to RFID, that increases both power and duty cycle.Engaging China to develop 434 MHz in RFID regulations (regulations expected by 1 September 2005)
43 China China is sensitive to foreign Intellectual Property Technology I.P.Subscription I.P.Access I.P.As a WTO member China will most likely accept the technology with some concessions from I.P. holdersChina has its own National Product Code and D-NPC will most likely be preferred to EPCChina considers its data and communications to be national security issues so the data base will be Chinese in China and not likely EPCIS.China is pushing for an Asian standard that will most likely include , , NPC, their own R1 Data Harmonization Network
45 RFID Experts GroupFormed in February 2004 to assist DoD with RFID implementationUnder the AIM Global umbrella in July 2004Reaching out for international cooperationEuropeJapanKoreaChina
46 REG Working Groups (WGs) WG 5-I: Interrogator System Implementation & OperationsWG 5-B: Back-upWG 5-L: Enabled Labels & PackagingWG 5-R: RecyclabilityWG 5-Q: Tag QualityWG 5-E: Education & CertificationWG 5-G: Global Operation (Regulatory)WG 5-P: PrivacyWG 5-F: Safety (Public Policy)WG : 5-C: SecurityWG : 5-T: Sensors and TransducersWG 5-S: Technology SelectionWG 5-C: Software & Middleware
47 ISO/IEC Implementation TRs ISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 1: RFID-enabled labels and packagingSource: REG WG 5-L & 5-BISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 2: Recyclability of RF tagsSource: REG WG 5-RISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 3: RFID interrogator/antenna installationSource: REG WG 5-I
48 RecommendationsCommence the development of industry standards using ISO 1736x as modelISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containersISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable transport itemsISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport unitsISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product packagingISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product taggingUse common air interface, syntax, and semanticsData structures can follow existing suite of industry bar code standards (plus unique identification)