Presentation on theme: "Craig K. Harmon, President & CEO, Q.E.D. Systems The Emperor’s New Clothes"— Presentation transcript:
Craig K. Harmon, President & CEO, Q.E.D. Systems The Emperor’s New Clothes
Q.E.D. Systems Craig K. Harmon President & CEO Visit our web sites: and Chair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID Chair, RFID Experts Group (REG) Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 “RFID” Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 (RFID - Air Interface ) Chair, ASC MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable Containers Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging) Vice-chair, ASC MH 10 and U.S. TAG to ISO TC 122 (Packaging) Member, EPCglobal HAG (UHFGen2), FMCG BAG, HLS BAG, SAG Past Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (RFID) - ANS INCITS 256:1999, 2001 JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R), International Air Transport Association (IATA), and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) ASC MH 10/SC 8 Liaison Universal Postal Union (UPU) Physical Encoding Group (PEG) Advisor and Member of U.S. Postal Service Strategic Technology Council ISO TC 104 & 122 (Freight Containers / Packaging) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31 Project Editor, ISO (Electronic Container Seal - Physical Layer) Chairman & Project Editor, ANS MH (Data Application Identifiers) Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Co-chair, HIBCC Automatic Identification Technical Committee (AITC) AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, & RFID Committees Project Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product, Product Package, & Component Marking Original Advisor, U.S. Department of Defense in Migration to Commercial Standards Original Project Editor, NATO STANAG 2233 (RFID for NATO Asset Tracking) Standards Advisor, R1 - RFID China Forum (Cooperation of China, Korea, Japan) CompTIA Subject Matter Expert - Professional Skills Certification - RFID CompTIA RFID Certified Professional (CRCP) - RFID+ Recipient of the 2004 Richard Dilling Award
Microsoft RFID Myths 1. There are no set Standards for RFID today. 2. Replacing bar code-based processes with RFID processes will achieve ROI 3. RFID benefits only retailers, not suppliers. 4. RFID is the only way to automate manual receiving processes. 5. The EPC is an RFID replacement of the current bar code (GTIN/U.P.C.).
Microsoft RFID Myths 6. Adoption of RFID won’t require facility, equipment, and process changes. 7. Only companies with metal and liquid products face readability challenges. 8. Consistently reading every EPC on a pallet is easy. 9. All RFID tags are the same. 10. EPC technology can only be used for retail goods.
My Favorite Quote of Bill Gates People have a tendency to overestimate technology in the short term, and underestimate it in the long term.
Technical Obstacles Multiple dock doors, multiple antennas/ interrogators, dense readers, overlapping signals Tag failures caused by electrostatic discharge (25 kV) in handling caused by “slap and ship” operations that may detach the antenna from the chip caused by poor manufacturing techniques Assumption that it matters little where the tag is applied to the container What to do in case of a tag failure
Material Effects on RFID Signals Materials in the RF field can have several effects: Reflection / refraction Absorption (loss) Dielectric effects (detuning) Complex propagation effects
Material Effects on RFID Signals MaterialEffect(s) CorrugateAbsorption (moisture) Detuning (dielectric) Conductive liquids, e.g., shampoo Absorption PlasticsDetuning (dielectric) MetalsReflection Groups of cansReflection Tissue Human body / animals Absorption Detuning (dielectric) Reflection
Overcoming the Same Overlap - shielding, trip switches, antenna selection (ISO TR ) Tag failure - care in applying tags, encode-print- apply Poor quality - ISO standards (currently in the REG) on tag manufacturing (ISO 9000ish) and tag quality measurement Tag location - characterization of containers, dielectric backing, dielectric inserts, content- insensitive labels (ISO TR ) Back-up - REG recommendations on bar code and human-readable (ISO TR )
An RFID label contains several layers: Printable face-stock Adhesive RFID inlay (chip + antenna) Adhesive Liner Smart Label Courtesy: Avery Dennison
Closer look at the RFID inlay Antenna Major driver of read performance Determines how well an RFID label works with a certain product Chip Contains data Courtesy: Avery Dennison
Its all about the data Inventory databases are currently structured with product codes New technology should not require new data Oftentimes new data structures are simply means by which sponsors can secure revenue streams Refresh technology when that technology becomes cost effective Do not “rush” into new data structures without understanding the impact on existing information systems
RFID vs Key-entry & Bar Code RFID is not a replacement for a bar code!! Use RFID where there is a positive ROI When analyzing your business process, which makes the most sense? ALWAYS HAVE A BACK-UP PLAN With RFID back-up, what is the key-entry solution: Keying 96 1s and 0s? 32 octal character representation of binary data? 29 decimal character representation of binary data? 24 hexadecimal character representation of binary data? For bar code back-up, will you use existing bar codes or new ones?
Serialization EPC implementation requires re- engineering of your business processes Existing inventory data bases are product code not serial number driven Appreciate the amount of additional data that you will be both filtering and processing Encoding existing serial numbers may be preferable to migration to a binary system EPC does NOT require its serialization for its arbitration/anti-collision methods
Blocks vs Fields of Data Bar codes are one at a time Two-dimensional symbols are often blocks of data Data rich RF tags are blocks of data Serial number only tags require data base / communications access to identify the data Are your systems ready for these changes? Are you ready for the investment to enable these changes?
Implementation Issues Read zone control Application of tags Where in the process Where on the container How are the labels being applied Use ISO standards (avoid Class 0 and Class 1v1) EPC requires pre-population of data at the recipient (X / EDIFACT DESADV / XML) or access to the EPCIS Back-up in case of tag failure Recycling Data concerns Return on investment
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEEEINCITS International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards Organizations International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (United Nations) TC 122/104 JWG SC Apps RFID TC 8 Ships & Marine Tech SC 31 Automatic Data Capture ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development ECMA Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN) Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) Comité Européen Postal & Telegraph (CEPT) TC 104 Freight Containers International Regional National Standards Assoc of China (SAC) AFNOR Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN) JISC ANSI British Standards Institution (BSI) AIM MHIUCCCEA Industry Other DoD ATA CEA AIA HIBCC AIAG UCC Other WG 1 - Symbology WG 2 - Data Content WG 3 - Conformance WG 4 - RFID Universal Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations) T6B10 SC 17 IC Cards VDA ODETTE WG 5 - RTLS TC 122 Packaging
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) - IT ISO/IEC JTC 1 Subcommittee 31 WG 1 Data Carrier Secretariat Uniform Code Council (UCC) Technical Committee (TC) 122 (Packaging) WG 4 (Transport Labels) National Body (NB) Technical Advisory Groups (TAG) U.S. TAG Administrator MHI Shipping Labels Product Package Marking Dimensions & Layout Symbology Use (Linear & 2D) Print Quality Level Label Materials License Plate Recommendations Database / EDI Issues WG 2 Data Structure WG 3 Conformance Convener S. Ackley (US) Convener T. Yoshioka (JP) Convener C. Biss (US) Code 39 ITF MaxiCode Data Matrix EAN/U.P.C. Code 128 PDF417 DAI Data Syntax Symbology Identifiers Linear Print Quality 2D Print Quality Printing Specs Test Specs BC Printers Test Specs BC Readers Test Specs BC Verifiers WG 4 RF Tags Convener H. Barthel Unique ID JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID Air Interface Unique RF Tag ID Defs. Logical Mem Map Encoding Rules Application Interface QR Code WG 7 (Package Labels) RFID Performance RFID Conformance Technical Committee (TC) 104 (Freight Containers) WG 5 RTLS Convener M. Harmon API 2450 MHz 433 MHz GLS Near Field AIDC Focused ISO Standards
Types of Standards Technology Symbology, RFID, I.C. Card Data Content Semantics (DIs or AIs), Syntax Conformance Print Quality, Test Specifications, Conformance to Air Interface Application Standards Freight container, RTI, Ship Label, Product Package, Product Mark/Tag, eSeal
Working Group (WG) 4 RFID for Item Management ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Charted to work on technical specifications “JTC 1 was established in 1987 for 'standardization in the field of information technology systems... and equipment...(with the exclusion of) information technology for specific applications….” [jtc1n6778] JTC 1 is comprised of both ISO and IEC SC 31 is chartered to work on automatic data capture technical specifications
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 RFID for Item Management Air Interface (ISO 18000) ISO/IEC Generic parameters - Air interface ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface below 135 kHz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at 2.45 GHz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHz ISO/IEC Parameters for active air interface at MHz Technical Standards Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Data Content Standards ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 2 & WG 4/SG 1 ISO/IEC Data Carrier/Symbology Identifiers ISO/IEC EAN.UCC Application Identifiers and ASC MH 10 Data Identifiers ISO/IEC Syntax for High Capacity ADC Media ISO/IEC Unique identification - Part 1: Transport units; Part 2: Registration procedures; Part 3: Common rules; Part 4: Unique Item identification for supply chain management; Unique identification - Part 5: Returnable transport items; ISO/IEC Data protocol: Application interface ISO/IEC Protocol: Data encoding rules and logical memory functions ISO/IEC Unique ID of RF Tag
ISO/IEC RFID Device Performance Test Methods ISO/IEC RFID Device Conformance Test Methods Part 2 - <135 kHz Part MHz Part GHz Part MHz Part MHz Conformance Standards Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 3/SG 1
ISO TC 122/104 Joint Working Group (JWG) (Supply chain applications of RFID)
Item Pkg Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Unit Load “Pallet” Unit Load “Pallet” Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 Layer 4 (433 MHz) ISO (Freight containers) Layer 3 ( MHz) (Other with TPA) ISO (Returnable transport items) Layer 2 ( MHz) ISO (Transport units) Layer 1 ( MHz) ISO (Product packages) Layer 0 ( MHz) (13.56 MHz with TPA) ISO (Product tagging) The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) “TPA” - Trading Partner Agreement Source: Akira Shibata, DENSO-Wave Corporation
ISO TC 122/104 JWG project status ISO , Freight containers — RF automatic identification IS Issued 1991, Amd CD expected ISO 17363, Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containers DIS expected ISO 17364, Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable transport items DIS expected ISO 17365, Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport units DIS expected ISO 17366, Supply chain applications of RFID - Product packaging DIS expected ISO 17367, Supply chain applications of RFID - Product tagging DIS expected
Application Standards Radio Frequency Identification - Open Standards ISO Freight containers — Automatic identification ISO Freight Containers - Radio-frequency communication protocol for electronic seal ISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Code Structure ISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Technical Concept ISO – Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals - Advanced Transponders - Part 1: Air Interface ISO – Gas Cylinders - Identification and Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology - Part 1: Reference Architecture and Terminology ISO – Gas Cylinders - Identification and Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology - Part 2: Numbering Schemes for Radio Frequency ANSI MH RFID for Returnable Containers AIAG B-11 - Tire & Wheel Identification Standard ISO 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID ISO Freight containers ISO Freight containers ISO Returnable transport items ISO Returnable transport items ISO Transport units ISO Transport units ISO Product packaging ISO Product packaging ISO Product tagging ISO Product tagging
Bolt Seal Security Tag Electronically secures ocean containers, air cargo ULD containers, trailers, Monitors presence and integrity of bolt seal, generates alarm upon bolt removal or breakage Re-usable tag Reduces manual inspections Minimizes theft, loss and tampering Sealing and anti-tamper capability
Technology Standards ISO/IEC RFID for Item Management Part kHz Part MHz Part MHz Part MHz Part MHz (active) Data Standards ISO/IEC Application Identifiers & Data Identifiers ISO/IEC Syntax ISO/IEC Unique Item Identification ISO/IEC Data Protocol: Application Interface ISO/IEC Data Protocol: Data Encoding Rules and Logical Memory Functions ISO/IEC Unique Identification for RF Tags Radio Frequency Identification Open Standards Conformance Standards ISO/IEC RFID device conformance test methods (at) Part kHz Part MHz Part MHz Part MHz Part MHz (active)
ISO Standards ISO has published air interface, data structure, and conformance standards ISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 28 countries that actively participate in standards development including China, Korea, and Japan ISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 28 other regional and international organizations with which it cooperates in liaison ISO follows established rules and engages all member countries in voting and comments to developing standards ISO is open
The Five Cent Tag
Instant Checkout…A Dream Come True?? “Chip to remove shopping blues” —Post-Courier, January 1994 “Tiny microchip identifies groceries in seconds.” —Chicago Tribune “Checkout in one minute” —The Times, London “Scanning range of four yards” —NY Times “1.5¢ electronic bar code announced” —San Francisco Chronicle
The Hype Cycle Visibility Time Technology Trigger Peak of Inflated Expectations Trough of Disillusionment Slope of Enlightenment Plateau of Productivity Source: Jackie Fenn, Gartner Group RFID Today!
How far? How fast? How many? How much? Geometry of tagging space Interferers (physical and radio) Which Technology
How far, how fast, how many, how much, attached to what?
MHz Includes Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) band Technology enhancement (frequency agile and listen before talk) permits MHz used in Region 2 (U.S.) MHz nearing finalization in Region 1 (Europe) MHz regulations finalized in Region 3 (Korea) MHz regulations in process in Region 3 (Japan - Jul ‘05) Engaging China to develop “in band” regulations (regulations expected by 1 September 2005) ISO/IEC ( MHz) re-opened to address new developments, such as Gen2 Recent Developments
MHz ISM band permitted by ITU (implemented in Region 1 but for different parameters in Regions 2 and 3) ITU receptive to Regions 2 and 3 supporting Region 1 for a 433 MHz allocation for freight containers ITU receptive to Regions 2 and 3 supporting Region 1 for a 433 MHz allocation for freight containers Chairman of ISO TC 104 (Freight containers) has made request to ITU and WCO to embrace both passive ( ) and active ( MHz) calling out and Approved in Korea Approval expected in Japan (Nov ‘05) Received support through new (April 2004) FCC rules, specific to RFID, that increases both power and duty cycle. Received support through new (April 2004) FCC rules, specific to RFID, that increases both power and duty cycle. Engaging China to develop 434 MHz in RFID regulations (regulations expected by 1 September 2005) Engaging China to develop 434 MHz in RFID regulations (regulations expected by 1 September 2005) Recent Developments
China China is sensitive to foreign Intellectual Property Technology I.P. Subscription I.P. Access I.P. As a WTO member China will most likely accept the technology with some concessions from I.P. holders China has its own National Product Code and D-NPC will most likely be preferred to EPC China considers its data and communications to be national security issues so the data base will be Chinese in China and not likely EPCIS. China is pushing for an Asian standard that will most likely include , , NPC, their own R1 Data Harmonization Network
RFID Experts Group (REG)
RFID Experts Group Formed in February 2004 to assist DoD with RFID implementation Under the AIM Global umbrella in July 2004 Reaching out for international cooperation EuropeJapanKoreaChina
REG Working Groups (WGs) WG 5-I: Interrogator System Implementation & Operations WG 5-B: Back-up WG 5-L: Enabled Labels & Packaging WG 5-R: Recyclability WG 5-Q: Tag Quality WG 5-E: Education & Certification WG 5-G: Global Operation (Regulatory) WG 5-P: Privacy WG 5-F: Safety (Public Policy) WG : 5-C: Security WG : 5-T: Sensors and Transducers WG 5-S: Technology Selection WG 5-C: Software & Middleware
ISO/IEC Implementation TRs ISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 1: RFID-enabled labels and packaging Source: REG WG 5-L & 5-B ISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 2: Recyclability of RF tags Source: REG WG 5-R ISO/IEC , Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 3: RFID interrogator/antenna installation Source: REG WG 5-I
Commence the development of industry standards using ISO 1736x as model ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containers ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containers ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable transport items ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable transport items ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport units ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport units ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product packaging ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product packaging ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product tagging ISO Supply chain applications of RFID - Product tagging Use common air interface, syntax, and semantics Data structures can follow existing suite of industry bar code standards (plus unique identification) Recommendations