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WELCOME Leading and Managing Change

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1 WELCOME Leading and Managing Change
Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

2 GET SET—TAKE A STAND FOR CHANGE!
Pick a partner Face each other Take a minute and quietly make note(s) of the other person (NO touching or talking). Now turn around and face away from each other (back to back). Await instructions from your facilitator. Be accountable. People watching involves observing people to get a feel for the beauty and rhythm of the community around us. For some people watchers, it is about creativity, using the moments of watching to try and guess at another person's story just from mere observation, and embracing the fun of what is, in effect, an amateur social science. People watchers observe speech in action, relationship interactions, body language, and activities. It is also common to listen in to conversations. Indeed, all the senses can be put to good use when people watching, even down to trying to guess a person's perfume or aftershave as they walk by. One of the more important aspects of an observer-observed pair is that how we choose to observe can actually change what we observe. How we choose to observe is a focus of our attention; and awareness of that focus causes our creative energy to flow, thus creating an experience of that focus. Changing our focus, that is how we observe, changes what we experience. Changing how we observe can reveal unseen aspects of what we observe. Another way of saying this is that by changing the conditions under which we observe something, we reveal a set of facts that in and of themselves may have been otherwise unseen. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

3 SESSION OVERVIEW Get Set—Take a Stand for Change! Overview
Intro to Change and Assessment Change and Organizations Adaptive Action Parameters of Change Case Study Summary and Reflection Change, or transition, can be defined as the process of moving from here to there. As the definition implies, change involves movement; it is a progression, meaning that it happens in a series of steps. Change is almost never instantaneous; it usually occurs over time and involves a transition from one state to another. The fact that change involves movement and process suggests that we can expect different things to occur in an expected sequence. In this session we will examine the nature of change, assess your readiness to accept/embrace change personally, along with a process and the parameters that influence the change process itself. Outcomes include: Gain an appreciation for the nature and scope of change and assess personal readiness to change. Understand the dimensions of change as it relates to individuals, teams, and organizations. Gain key insights regarding the change process and learn how to apply the process to teams and organizations. Understand the impact that change has on us, others close to us, and the organization as a whole. Be able to apply change concepts and principles to a case study situation. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

4 CHANGE: SOURCE, RESPONSE, FOCUS
Changes can be: Caused by external factors/people Caused by internal factors/people Reactive – reacting to problems Proactive – preparing before problems occur Focused on growth, excellence, gaining a competitive advantage, securing the future, etc. Whatever the “source” or root event/cause that is necessitating change, in many instances the response is one of working to “solve a problem”. The problem-solving or action science approach is the way most change agents were trained. In fact, many change agents gain prominence or develop good reputations by identifying problems and working toward their resolution. As a philosophy of science, logical positivism has dominated the academic world, particularly M.B.A. and business related Ph.D. programs, for the past 50 years. Problem solving, action science, and the scientific method are all based on the assumptions of logical positivism. A key assumption in logical positivism is that social and psychological reality is something fundamentally stable, enduring, and “out there”. However, the stability assumption may no longer be as tenable in the current environment (Johansen, Leaders Make the Future; Eoyang and Holladay, Adaptive Action). Interventions based on this assumption are likely to have short-run value. In fact, it has been suggested that the typical problem-solving approach has a number of other unappealing consequences. First, a problem-solving approach generally requires us to ask what is wrong or what went wrong. The problem-solving approach creates an environment in which people spend most of their time focusing on what is not working well and they can only do this for so long without becoming demoralized and resigned to being in a problem-filled work place. Second, a problem-solving approach to organizational events generates a downward cycle of discussion. To this point, data collection (a key element of the problem-solving approach) consists of having people discuss, and often display to others, their failings. If you tell people they have problems, the most likely response will be blame, denial, defensiveness, anger, or depression. Third, addressing problems, setting targets, and working to accomplish them creates a culture of problem-centered improvement. This mentality frequently leads to a culture best stated by the phrase, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” Hence, people wait to take action until problems are identified or create pressure on the existing system. While the logical positivism approach is here to stay, it may be useful to consider a highly popular alternative to frame the conversation in a much more optimistic light. In the 1980s, David Cooperrider, professor at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, developed a new model for organizational development and change which he termed “appreciative inquiry” (AI). Appreciation has to do with both recognition and enhancing value. It is about affirming past and present strengths, assets, and potentials. Inquiry refers to both exploration and discovery. It is about asking questions, studying, and learning. AI may be broadly applied to the change process but specifically it may be used to: (1) generate process or work-flow improvements, (2) assist in team or relational development, (3) facilitate strategic planning initiatives, or (4) identify growth opportunities for at-risk employees. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

5 VARIABLES THAT IMPACT CHANGE READINESS
Week Leading Change LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE “Change can be feared and at the same time exhilarating. Many leaders find that fundamental change results in the most interesting, involving, and meaningful work of their careers. With change, we are challenged, fully engaged, and intensely connected to the essential work of the organization.” Duck, 2001 VARIABLES THAT IMPACT CHANGE READINESS YOU OTHERS ORGANIZATION Personal Bias Collective Bias History, Tradition Comfort Zone Team Dynamics Culture, Rules, Policies Health and Well-Being Situation, Threat Market Conditions Personal Focus, Orientation Interpersonal Relationships Information Flow, Vision, Values Willingness to Take Risk Operating Mandate Risk/Reward Ratio Change is the essence of leadership. The verb “lead” itself describes movement — guiding others on a path or journey to a desired new destination. Many of the most important ideas and skills supporting the essence of change leadership will focus on building your capability to define and lead productive change efforts, to stay ahead of the curve, to set a vision and achieve it. Change leadership is really about helping people and their organizations make change a core competency. At the same time, to be effective at change, a leader or manager must also value constancy and stability. One of the best ways to undermine change efforts, or squander their benefits, is to try to change too much. Therefore, one of the first and most important responsibilities of a change leader is defining a vision for change (the objective or destination) at the same time as establishing boundaries and limits (like the border of the path). Without that focus — without a balance between change and constancy — your efforts become confused and the power of change is dissipated. With so many things needing to change, and so much pressure from the outside, it becomes increasingly difficult for leaders to balance change and stability. This adds to the problem of leaders becoming disconnected from the day-to-day operations that are the foundation of any successful enterprise. So both suffer from a lack of focus. It is useful to be mindful of the many variables that may ultimately impact your ability to change and/or to influence change on your team or even across your organizations. Take a look at this chart. What variables would you add to this list in any given category? Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

6 THE GATEKEEPERS OF CHANGE
People are the gatekeepers of change. People’s resistance to change is the most perplexing, distressing, and confusing part of change. —Kriegel & Brandt, 1996 Resistance to change manifests itself in many ways, from foot-dragging and inertia to petty sabotage to outright rebellions. The best tool for leaders of change is to understand the predictable, universal sources of resistance in each situation and then strategize around them. Among the most common reasons people resist change are: Loss of control. Change interferes with autonomy and can make people feel that they have lost control over their territory. It is not just political, as in who has the power. Our sense of self-determination is often the first thing to go when faced with a potential change coming from someone else. Smart leaders leave room for those affected by change to make choices. They invite others into the planning, giving them ownership. Excess uncertainty. If change feels like walking off a cliff blindfolded, then people will reject it. People often prefer to remain mired in misery rather than head toward an unknown. As the saying goes, “Better the devil you know than the devil you don’t know.” To overcome inertia requires a sense of safety as well as an inspiring vision. Leaders should create certainty of process, with clear, simple steps and timetables. Surprise, surprise! Decisions imposed on people suddenly, with no time to get used to the idea or prepare for the consequences, are generally resisted. It is always easier to say no than to say yes. Leaders should avoid the temptation to craft changes in secret and then announce them all at once. It is better to plant seeds — that is, to sprinkle hints of what might be coming and seek input. Everything seems different. Change is meant to bring something different, but how different? We are creatures of habit. Routines become automatic, but change jolts us into consciousness, sometimes in uncomfortable ways. Too many differences can be distracting or confusing. Leaders should try to minimize the number of unrelated differences introduced by a central change. Wherever possible keep things familiar. Remain focused on the important things; avoid change for the sake of change. Loss of face. By definition, change is a departure from the past. Those people associated with the last version — the one that did not work, or the one that is being superseded — are likely to be defensive about it. When change involves a big shift of strategic direction, the people responsible for the previous direction dread the perception that they must have been wrong. Leaders can help people maintain dignity by celebrating those elements of the past that are worth honoring, and making it clear that the world has changed. That makes it easier to let go and move on. Concerns about competence. Change is resisted when it makes people feel stupid. They might express skepticism about whether the new software version will work or whether digital journalism is really an improvement, but down deep they are worried that their skills will be obsolete. Leaders should over-invest in structural reassurance, providing abundant information, education, training, mentors, and support systems. A period of overlap, running two systems simultaneously, helps ease transitions. More work. Change is indeed more work. Those closest to the change in terms of designing and testing it are often overloaded, in part because of the inevitable unanticipated glitches in the middle of change, per “Kanter’s Law” that “everything can look like a failure in the middle.” Leaders should acknowledge the hard work of change by allowing some people to focus exclusively on it, or adding extra perks for participants. They should reward and recognize participants. Ripple effects. Like tossing a pebble into a pond, change creates ripples, reaching distant spots in ever-widening circles. The ripples disrupt other departments, important customers, people well outside the venture or neighborhood, and they start to push back, rebelling against changes they had nothing to do with that interfere with their own activities. Leaders should enlarge the circle of stakeholders. They must consider all affected parties, however distant, and work with them to minimize disruption. Past resentments. The ghosts of the past are always lying in wait to haunt us. As long as everything is in a steady state, they remain out of sight. But the minute you need cooperation for something new or different, the ghosts spring into action. Old wounds reopen, historic resentments are remembered — sometimes going back many generations. Leaders should consider gestures to heal the past before sailing into the future. Sometimes the threat is real. Now we get to true pain and politics. Change is resisted because it can hurt. When new technologies displace old ones, jobs can be lost; prices can be cut; investments can be wiped out. The best thing leaders can do when the changes they seek pose significant threat is to be honest, transparent, fast, and fair. For example, one big layoff with strong transition assistance may be better than successive waves of cuts. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

7 KISS OF YES Most dissenters will not stand up and shout at you that they hate what you are doing to them and to their comfortable old ways. Instead, they will nod and smile and agree with everything you say — and then behave as they always have. We call this vicious compliance, or the kiss of yes. Organizational change involves three phases: an initial stage of recognition and preparation, followed by the implementation of the actual changes and, finally, a period of consolidation. These phases are not linear, but all three must take place for the change to work. Moreover, for each stage to be even marginally successful, certain conditions must be met. In the first stage, the organization must evince widespread dissatisfaction with the status quo. Someone must develop a vision for the future and a plan to get there. During the second stage, there must be a real willingness to take on the resisters — the most dangerous of these may well be the ones who give you "the kiss of yes.” The consolidation phase is the time for measurement and rewards. The organization must be ready to make changes to the change plan, based on an honest assessment of what is working and what is not. It is at these moments that the flexibility of an organization is put to the test. — Fisher, 1995 Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

8 CHANGE AND YOU! Your brain is like an elephant with a rider perched on top. The rider does the planning and analyzing. The elephant provides the emotional energy. To create change the elephant and rider must cooperate. Directing the rider. Make sure the rider knows where to go, how others got there, and how you will get there. Motivating the elephant. Knowing is not enough. Make sure the elephant feels drawn to the change. Make the change small (so it is not intimidating) and encourage a growth mindset (“change is possible”). Shaping the path. Change the environment to change the behavior. Build habits. Behavior is contagious: surround yourself with others exhibiting the behavior your want; help is spread. Switch, Heath & Heath Whether change is to occur at the individual, team, or organizational level, it really all begins with you and your willingness or readiness to embrace change. Resistance to change comes from a fear of the unknown or an expectation of loss. The front-end of people’s resistance to change is how they perceive the change. The back-end is how well they are equipped to deal with the change they expect. People's degree of resistance to change is determined by whether they perceive the change as good or bad, and how severe they expect the impact of the change to be on them. Their ultimate acceptance of the change is a function of how much resistance they have and the quality of their coping skills and their support system. In Switch, by co-authors Chip and Dan Heath, the analogy used invites readers to consider change involving three critical variables, the rider (our power of cognition and reasoning), an elephant (our emotional center, what the heart desires), and the path itself (the environment around us). You cannot change one variable without potentially impacting the other and you cannot get where you are going without some level of collaboration between all three. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

9 CHANGE IS STATE OF MIND Clear your mind by getting aware of your thoughts and emotions at this very moment. Refocus your mind on something empowering. Maybe something that you enjoy, a past success, or people you love. Or just what will take you forward at this moment - the right thing for you to do. Use your physical body by moving fast, stand up straight and tall, shoulders back, head slightly up, looking straight ahead. Feel the energy raising inside yourself. Take a deep and confident breath. Change and optimism go together. In the current economic downturn it seems that optimism is lagging, but there is still a strong motivation to succeed, which means overcoming obstacles. Many, if not most of the obstacles that people face in their rise to success, are personal. Which is why almost everyone wants to change a habit, a personality trait, a chronic state of anxiety, and so on. The problem with personal change is that if you attack your old habits directly, the task is quite difficult. The mind that desires change confronts the mind that is bound by old conditioning. The result is inner conflict, with one side pushing and the other side resisting. Countless people feel trapped inside this war, whether their goal is to stop overeating, manage their anger, become more assertive, or stop being fearful - the desire to change is not enough, and keeping up the motivation to change soon wears out. The secret to personal change is to stop fighting against yourself. If the inner war was winnable, you would have won it long ago. You should not give up - giving up takes you out of the war zone, but that is not enough to create positive change. Your brain is still trained to follow the pathways set down by habit and conditioning. This is where the secret to personal change comes into play. Change occurs by giving the brain new pathways. Without these new pathways, your default reactions will remain in place. Brain wiring is not the same as house wiring. Even if you are "wired" to overeat or to lose your temper quickly, these reactions can be over-ridden. The way you perceive the world is largely dependent on your inner state of mind. Being able to change your state of mind proactively means that you are in control. You are in control of how effectively you function and more importantly, how you feel, regardless of the events around you. Because any emotion you have is a response to something. And if you are able to choose your response more carefully, your emotional state will not be at the mercy of what happens in your life. To get into a peak state, make use of three key factors: 1. Clear your mind by getting aware of your thoughts and emotions at this very moment. 2. Refocus your mind on something empowering. Maybe something that you enjoy, a past success, or people you love. Or just what will take you forward at this moment - the right thing for you to do. 3. Use your physical body by moving fast, stand up straight and tall, shoulders back, head slightly up, looking straight ahead. Feel the energy raising inside yourself. Take a deep and confident breath. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

10 CHANGE READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE
Change-Readiness Assessment Write the number beside each statement that reflects how accurately the statement describes you. Change-Readiness Scale: 1 = Not Like Me, 6 = Exactly Like Me 1. I prefer the familiar to the unknown. 2. I rarely second guess myself. 3. I’m unlikely to change plans once they’re set. 4. I can’t wait for the day to get started. 5. I believe in not getting your hopes too high. 6. If something’s broken, I’ll find a way to fix it. 7. I get impatient when there are not clear answers. 8. I’m inclined to establish routines and stay with them. 9. I can make any situation work for me. 10. When something important doesn’t work out, it takes me time to adjust. 11. I have a hard time relaxing and doing nothing. 12. If something can go wrong, it usually does. 13. When I get stuck I’m inclined to improvise solutions. 14. I get frustrated when I can’t get a grip on something. 15. I prefer work that is familiar and within my comfort zone. 16. I can handle anything that comes along. 17. Once I’ve made up my mind, I don’t easily change it. 18. I push myself to the max 19. My tendency is to focus on what can go wrong. 20. When people need solutions to problems, they call on me. 21. When an issue is unclear, my impulse is to clarify it right away. 22. It pays to stay with the tried and true. 23. I focus on my strengths, not my weaknesses. 24. I find it hard to give up on something even if it’s not working out. 25. I’m restless and full of energy. 26. Things rarely work out the way you want them to. 27. My strength is to find ways around obstacles. 28. I can’t stand to leave things unfinished. 29. I prefer the main highway to the back road. 30. My faith in my abilities is unshakable. 31. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 32. I’m a vigorous and passionate person. 33. I’m more likely to see problems than opportunities. 34. I look in unusual places to find solutions. 35. I don’t perform well when there are vague expectations and goals. In their landmark book, Sacred Cows Make the Best Burgers, bestselling authors Robert Kriegel and David Brandt explore the cause and effects of change in the workplace, and lay out how to develop change-ready people and organizations. Take a few minutes, respond to the 35 questions to the best of your ability, and score the results as directed. It should be noted that in reality, assessing our willingness to change is very difficult in the abstract. Going back to the notion of change involving the rider, elephant, and path — it is only when you really can identify a specific issue that really matters to you, and one that requires some investment of effort and the consequence of attendant risk and/or reward based on what you may choose to do, that you meaningfully asses your willingness to change. Adapted from Sacred Cows Make the Best Burgers by Robert Kriegel and David Brandt Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

11 CHANGE READINESS SCORING
1. Resourcefulness Add up your scores on questions 6, 13, 20, 27, 34. This total is your score. Optimal range is between 22 and Score: ______ 2. Optimism Add up your scores on questions 5, 12, 19, 26, 33. Subtract this total from 35 for your score. Optimal range is between 22 and ______ = Score: ______ 3. Adventurousness Add up your scores on questions 1,8, 15, 22, 29. Subtract this total from 35 for your score. Optimal range is 22 to ______ = Score: ______ 4. Drive Add up your scores on questions 4, 11, 18, 25, 32. This total is your score. Optimal range is 22 to Score: ______ 5. Adaptability Add up your scores on questions 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. Subtract this total from 35 for your score. Optimal range is 22 to ______ = Score: ______ 6. Confidence Add up your scores on questions 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. This total is your score. Optimal range is 22 to Score: _______ 7. Tolerance for Ambiguity Add up your scores on questions 7, 14, 21, 28, 35. Subtract this total from 35 for your score. Optimal range is 22 to ______ = Score: ______ Scoring the Change Readiness Questionnaire. Follow the directions outlined in Steps 1-7 above and note the optimal range in each category. Your Profile: You will probably find you have higher scores on some traits and lower scores on others. This is typical of most profiles and indicates that some of your Change Readiness traits are more developed than others. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

12 THE SEVEN TRAITS OF CHANGE READINESS
Resourcefulness Optimism Adventurousness Drive Adaptability Confidence Tolerance for Ambiguity The assessment instrument designed by Kriegel and Brandt seeks to measure the following seven traits: Resourcefulness — Being effective at making the most of any situation and utilizing whatever resources are available to develop plans and contingencies. Seeing more than one way to achieve goals and looking in less obvious places to find help. When people low in Resourcefulness encounter obstacles, they get stuck and dig in their heels. Very high scorers (over 26) might overlook obvious solutions and create more work than is necessary. Optimism — The pessimist observes only problems and obstacles while the optimist recognizes opportunities and possibilities. Optimism cannot be taught; it must be caught. You can get it by hanging around the right people. Optimists tend to be more enthusiastic and positive about change. Very high optimism scorers (over 26) may lack critical-thinking skills. Adventurousness — The inclination to take risks and the desire to pursue the unknown, to walk the path less taken. Since change always involves both risk and the unknown, Adventurous people usually perform well during organizational shake-ups. But very high scorers (over 26) may indicate a tendency toward recklessness. Drive — Combines physical energy and mental desire to create passion. It is the fuel that maximizes all the other traits. If you have drive, nothing appears impossible. If you do not, change is exhausting. Optimal range is Adaptability — Flexibility and resilience. Flexibility involves ease of shifting expectations. Resilience is the capacity to rebound from adversity quickly with a minimum of trauma. Scoring too high (over 26) indicates a lack of commitment or stick-to-it-ness. Confidence — If optimism is the view that a situation will work out, confidence is the belief in your own ability to handle it. There is a direct correlation between levels of confidence and receptivity to change. If people feel confident in their ability to handle a new task, they will be more receptive to it and more positive about it. Scores above 26, however, may indicate a cocky, know-it-all attitude and a lack of receptivity to feedback. Tolerance for Ambiguity — Change spawns uncertainty. No matter how carefully you plan there are always some elements of indefiniteness. Without a healthy tolerance for ambiguity, change is not only uncomfortable, it is downright scary. But too much tolerance can also get you in trouble. You may have difficulty finishing tasks and making decisions. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

13 CHANGE AND ORGANIZATIONS
At the other end of the change spectrum from you as an individual, we find the organization. While most of us are not in a position to direct or perhaps even influence the change across an entire organization, each of us is clearly impacted by organizational change so it is vital we understand the parameters involved. Change is a common thread that runs through all businesses regardless of size, industry, and age. Our world is changing fast and, as such, organizations must change quickly too. Organizations that handle change well thrive, while those that do not may struggle to survive. The concept of “change management” is a familiar one in most businesses today. But, how businesses manage change (and how successful they are at it) varies enormously depending on the nature of the business, the change, and the people involved. And a key part of this depends on how far people within it understand the change process. One of the cornerstone models for understanding organizational change was developed by Kurt Lewin back in the 1950s, and still holds true today. His model, known as Unfreeze – Change – Refreeze, refers to the three-stage process of change he describes. Lewin, a physicist as well as a social scientist, explained organizational change using the analogy of changing the shape of a block of ice. Kurt Lewin Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

14 CHANGE AND ORGANIZATIONS
Global Survey of 28,810 employees, 10 Industries, 15 Countries Issue Impact/Observation Performance Best performing organizations manage change four times more effectively. Employee Faith Less than 43% of employees indicated they were confident in their organization’s change process. Leader’s Downfall Leaders do not follow through on what they say they will do. Employee Confidence Less that half of employees (43%) are confident in their organization’s change process. Retention/Recruitment Organizations that do not manage change well are four times more likely to lose talent and/or will find it much harder to attract talent. Because change is so prevalent in organizations today, it is important that the change management process go well. And yet, research indicates that may be far from our operating reality. Right Management recently conducted a global study — ”Ready, Get Set... Change!” — to demystify the change process as well as identify key engagement drivers that may be used to improve change management initiatives and outcomes. The study drew on feedback from 28,810 employees across 10 industries in 15 countries. Key findings include: Best-performing organizations manage change nearly four times more effectively. In top-performing companies (defined as those achieving higher revenue and above-average customer loyalty profit results), 60% of employees responded that “change is handled effectively in my organization,” compared to 16% of employees in below-average performing organizations. Less than half (43%) of employees were confident in their organization’s change process. One in three employees believed their organization did not handle change effectively. The biggest downfall for senior leaders is the perception that they do not follow through on what they say they will do. Less than half (47%) agreed that senior leaders communicated change effectively; 54% of employees doubted senior leaders’ ability to respond appropriately to changing external conditions. Organizations that do not manage change well were four times more likely to lose talent. Twenty percent of employees who perceived change was not handled effectively indicated they planned to leave within one year versus only 5% of employees who held a favorable view. The latter planned to stay for at least five years. Ineffective change management can lead to lower levels of job confidence. Of the employees who reported that change management was not handled well, 45% expressed favorable feelings about not losing their job within 12 months, while 32% did not. This is in stark contrast to organizations with effective change management, where 80% of respondents had positive feelings about keeping their job versus only 7% who did not. Ineffective change management negatively impacted an organization’s ability to attract talent. When employees reported that change was managed poorly in their organizations, 75% of respondents had concerns with their company’s ability to attract talent. Source: Right Management Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

15 BEWARE, CHANGE AHEAD! Industry Status Expected Change Automobile
Majority of vehicles rely on a finite source of fuel Quality, comfort, economy all based on a renewable source of fuel that does not damage the environment Airline Safe, relatively reliable, and affordable mode Better customer experience, more choices and price points for quality service. Perhaps even a reasonable option to air Fast Food Low cost, high calorie options Low cost, quality products, healthier choices that also taste good Publishing High cost, low return for creative designers Low cost access, on demand, shape content to suit personal need and/or desire, mobile Education High cost, declining return on investment, highly structured Tuition??? Accreditation??? Credentialing??? Funding??? Take a few minutes to consider the major industries that serve and support you, your community, state, province, or country. With just a little bit of imagination you can probably identify some major issues that confront the organizations connected to that industry and from there, identity some changes that are expected in the future. Consider just education, post-secondary education to be specific. As you look forward after considering the current state of affairs (locally, regionally, and/or nationally), can you identify some changes that are expected? If so, then how might those changes impact your organization and your ability to respond? Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

16 CAPTURE THE CHANGES YOU SEE
Elevate your viewpoint From where you sit or stand: What changes are coming that will require the attention of your organization? On a scale of 1-10 (1 not at all, 10 absolutely yes) how likely is it that your organization we be ready for the future you envision? If your response is 7 or less, then what will it take to close the gap and improve your chances of success? Take minutes and see if you can vision forward and capture at least ONE issue that will impact post-secondary education and/or your organization in the future. As a table, pick the one issue that resonates with you best. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

17 THE RANGE OF CHANGE Mine Yours Change
Mine: That which best suits me, the stuff I can live or accept, the change I accept. Yours: That which best suits you, the stuff you can live with, the change you can accept. Change: That which is required based on some new reality that moves you from where you are to a different place. Mine Yours Change “Me” to “We” transforms people into world-changers one action and experience at a time. Change always begins with me, but for change to stick it typically involves both “you” and “me,” particularly when change involves any element or aspect of a human enterprise. As noted previously, most of us may never have responsibility for driving the change effort across an entire organization. However, it is likely that at some point we will be accountable for changing the direction of a team or department. In this instance, the overriding question becomes how do we get from “me” to “we,” from “I” to “us,” and from “mine” to “ours?” In any change situation involving more than one person, there is an intersection of interests where we may come together and master the essentials required of change in a way that supports fulfilling our needs, speaks to our strengths, and relieves us of the emotional traps we may have suffered from in the earlier stages of the change cycle. Environment Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

18 THE PRACTICE OF ADAPTIVE LEADERSHIP
Diagnose the System ID adaptive challenges Assess the landscape Mobilize the System Interpret what you see Design effective interventions Act, build support, manage See Yourself as a System ID loyalties Broaden your bandwidth Deploy Yourself Stay connected to purpose Engage, inspire, thrive According to the co-authors of The Practice of Adaptive Leadership (Heifetz, Grashow, and Linsky), adaptive leadership is the practice of mobilizing people to tackle tough challenges and thrive. The concept of thriving is drawn from evolutionary biology, in which a successful adaptation has three characteristics: (1) it preserves the DNA essential for the species' continued survival; (2) it discards (reregulates or rearranges) the DNA that no longer serves the species' current needs; and (3) it creates DNA arrangements that give the species the ability to flourish in new ways and in more challenging environments. Successful adaptations enable a living system to take the best from its history into its future. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

19 KOTTER’S EIGHT-STEP MODEL
Steps Action Step 1: Establish a Sense of Urgency Help others see the need for change and they will be convinced of the importance of acting immediately. Step 2: Create a Guiding Team Assemble a group with enough power to lead the change effort, and encourage the group to work as a team. Step 3: Develop a Change Vision Create a vision to help direct the change effort, and develop strategies for achieving that vision. Step 4: Communicate for Buy-in Make sure as many as possible understand and accept the vision and the strategy. Step 5: Empower Broad-based Action Remove obstacles to change, change systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision, and encourage risk-taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions. Step 6: Generate Short-term Wins Plan for achievements that can easily be made visible, follow-through with those achievements and recognize and reward employees who were involved. Step 7: Don’t Let Up Use increased credibility to change systems, structures, and policies that don't fit the vision. Also hire, promote, and develop employees who can implement the vision, and finally reinvigorate the process with new projects, themes, and change agents. Step 8: Make Changes Stick Articulate the connections between the new behaviors and organizational success, and develop the means to ensure leadership development and succession. Thirty years of research by leadership guru John Kotter suggests that 70% of all major change efforts in organizations fail. Why do they fail? Because organizations often do not take the holistic approach required to see the change through to fruition. Kotter believes that organizations can avoid failure and become adept at change by being more intentional and committing to an 8-step process for leading change. Step 1 — Establish a sense of urgency. For change to happen, about a quarter of your employees must be convinced that change is necessary — now. You need to transform complacency into a sense of urgency for change to happen. Step 2 — Create a guiding coalition or team. Major transformations are often attributed to one significant person in the organization (the change agent). However, no person can single-handedly develop, communicate, and eliminate all the obstacles for initiating change. Change requires a team of leaders, not just a single individual. Step 3 — Develop a change vision. Vision is essential for any change process to occur. It clarifies direction. It helps motivate people to take action that is not necessarily in their short-term interests. Without a shared sense of vision, people will be constantly battling over what to do. Step 4 — Communicate buy-in. Effective communication is the key to mobilizing your work force behind a new vision. Principles for communicating the vision: keep it simple; use metaphors and analogies; repeat, repeat, and repeat the message; lead by example; listen and be listened to; use many different forums to spread the word. Step 5 — Empower broad-based action. Empower a broad base of people to take action by removing as many obstacles as possible. Create an organizational structure that supports change. Obtain the support of your colleagues, supervisors, and managers. Step 6 — Generate short-term wins. Change takes time. Most employees will want to see some proof that their efforts are leading somewhere. Short-term wins offer this proof; they also undermine cynics and resisters and give change leaders concrete data to test and refine their vision. Step 7 — Don’t let up. Urgency drops off when short-term performance rises. It is easy to declare victory too soon and become complacent. Provide time, resources, and access; show courage and perseverance, attack silos and difficult politics or you will not create lasting change. Step 8 — Make changes stick. In a change effort, culture comes last, not first. Use new employee orientation to reinforce change. If possible, use the promotion process to strengthen norms in influential positions. Use the power of emotions to make the change stick. Eventually, the culture must support the change. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

20 SEE, FEEL, CHANGE Kotter and Cohen (The Heart of Change) report that changing one person is hard enough, but changing several is a real challenge. Yet this is the essence of leadership on a routine basis. Those that do so successfully focus on showing what needs to be changed. Once people respond emotionally to the message, their emotional reactions propel them into action. They see, then feel, then change. To help them make the leap, you must: Help people see the need for change with compelling, eye-catching, dramatic situations to visualize problems and solutions. Let people feel as though they are hit with the reality of their situation and feel the need to act. Let people take their emotionally-charged ideas into action. Adapted from Kotter and Cohen, The Heart of Change, 2012 Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

21 Law of the Few Stickiness Factor Power of Context Channel Capacity
THE TIPPING POINT Law of the Few Stickiness Factor Power of Context Channel Capacity Malcolm Gladwell's 2000 bestseller, The Tipping Point, has exhibited enormous staying power on the bestseller lists. Gladwell purports to answer two questions, "Why is it that some ideas or behaviors or products start epidemics and others don't? And what can we do to deliberately start and control positive epidemics of our own?” His insights are instructive as we apply some key principles to the change process. Forming a Guiding Coalition — remember the “law of the few.” The law of the few is roughly comparable to the 80/20 rule, that 20% of the people do 80% of the work. Gladwell attributes the success of social epidemics to the efforts of three types of individuals: connectors, mavens, and salesmen. Connectors are people who, because of their personalities and their ability to exist in numerous worlds and cultivate weak-ties with a variety of individuals, make the world a smaller place by bringing people together. Mavens accumulate knowledge about the industry; the maven is the guy in the cubicle next to yours who knows exactly what the next version of the iPod is going to look like and do. He is also the guy who has one first. Salesmen are people who, through the shear persuasiveness of their personalities, are able to sell ideas, products, and practices without even trying. We buy what they buy and do what they do because they make it seem so appealing, and we just want to be more like them. Want your message to stick — apply the lessons from Gladwell’s stickiness factor. The stickiness factor is the impact that something has, its ability to stick, to grab your attention, to stay on your mind. Gladwell purports that there are “relatively simple changes in the presentation and structuring” of an idea that can make it more sticky, and he uses the creation of hugely successful children's television shows, Sesame Street and Blue’s Clues, to illustrate this point. Want to improve the effectiveness and reach of your message — think channel capacity. Channel capacity is a concept in cognitive psychology that refers to the capacity of the brain to store/recall certain information. Without getting into all the different experiments described in Gladwell’s book, the gist is that our brain, on average, is wired to store about 6-7 categories/bits of information before most people start making mistakes in recalling. That is one of the reasons why phone numbers in the USA were originally set at seven digits. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

22 CHANGE RESPONSES “Change wears two faces, the face of danger and the face of opportunity. The danger face is usually seen first. You may have to look hard to find the opportunity face.” Unknown An old German proverb, roughly translated, states “to change and to change for the better are two different things.” Often times the response to change is linked to the actual initiator and then to the size and scope of the change itself. Resistance to change can emerge even when the advantages may seem obvious, such as in the case of a move to new, improved facilities. The skepticism and resistance can be especially strong when the change is viewed as being imposed by an external “them,” whether “they” are management, regulatory bodies, or even peer groups. Whether you are dealing with restructuring, new regulations, new customer requirements such as quality certifications, or even a hostile takeover, changes based upon compliance are the most challenging ones to implement because of the natural resistance we tend to have to situations we did not initiate. While people will usually comply with new dictates and regulations, research indicates that leaders can accelerate progress and achieve better results by gaining others’ commitment to successfully implementing the changes. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

23 THE TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE CYCLE
The Transformation Cycle typically begins with a triggering event that leads to a period of panic, confusion, and uncertainty. Even happy events like getting married or getting a new job can trigger grief for a lost identity. What is in jeopardy may be one's life, one's identity, one's relationship, or one's world view. What follows is a range of emotions that may vary widely (e.g., grief, anger, denial, fear, despair). Upon letting go, we may feel adrift without an anchor while experiencing a void. Through this uncomfortable and dangerous process, one undergoes fundamental change and eventually reemerges transformed. This point initiates an ascent characterized by joy, excitement, and power as one sees the world with new eyes and new purpose. One reestablishes a sense of order in one's life until such time as a new type of chaos strikes again and the cycle repeats. The Transformation Cycle is a wonderfully complex and rich concept. It has helped us recognize emotional patterns and variations within our community and by so doing, helped us to understand and respect each other as we encounter the various stages of the cycle. It also serves as a reminder that the painful places where we feel stuck are not the only stops on the journey. Trigger Event Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

24 THE RANGE OF EMOTIONS AND CHANGE
When confronted with the need to change, individuals, teams, and organizations may experience a wide range of emotions. Stage 1. People may be in shock or in denial. Even if the change has been well planned and you understand what is happening, this is when the reality of the change hits, and people need to take time to adjust. Here, people need information, need to understand what is happening, and need to know how to get help. This is a critical stage for communication. Make sure you communicate often, but also ensure that you do not overwhelm people: They will only be able to take in a limited amount of information at a time. But make sure that people know where to go for more information if they need it, and ensure that you take the time to answer any questions that come up. Stage 2. As people start to react to the change, they may start to feel concern, anger, resentment, or fear. They may resist the change actively or passively. They may feel the need to express their feelings and concerns and vent their anger. For the organization, this stage is the “danger zone.” If this stage is badly managed, the organization may descend into crisis or chaos. So this stage needs careful planning and preparation. As someone responsible for change, you should prepare for this stage by carefully considering the impacts and objections that people may have. Make sure that you address these early with clear communication and support and by taking action to minimize and mitigate the problems that people will experience. As the reaction to change is very personal and can be emotional, it is often impossible to preempt everything, so make sure that you listen and watch carefully during this stage (or have mechanisms to help you do this) so you can respond to the unexpected. Stage 3. This is the turning point for individuals and for the organization. Once you turn the corner to Stage 3, the organization starts to come out of the danger zone, and is on the way to making a success of the changes. Individually, as people's acceptance grows, they will need to test and explore what the change means. They will do this more easily if they are helped and supported to do so, even if this is a simple matter of allowing enough time for them to do so. As the person managing the changes, you can lay good foundations for this stage by making sure that people are well trained and are given early opportunities to experience what the changes will bring. Be aware that this stage is vital for learning and acceptance and that it takes time: Do not expect people to be 100% productive during this time, and build in the contingency time so that people can learn and explore without too much pressure. Stage 4. This stage is the one you have been waiting for! This is where the changes start to become second nature and people embrace the improvements to the way they work. As someone managing the change, you will finally start to see the benefits for which you worked so hard. Your team or organization starts to become productive and efficient and the positive effects of change become apparent. While you are busy counting the benefits, do not forget to celebrate success! The journey may have been rocky, and it will have certainly been at least a little uncomfortable for some people involved; but everyone deserves to share the success. What is more, by celebrating the achievement, you establish a track record of success which will make things easier the next time change is needed. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

25 APOLLO 13 Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide
In an instant, the Apollo 13 spacecraft pivoted from a moon-bound landing unit to a crippled vessel. While the spaceflight stands today as a demonstration of NASA innovation saving lives on the fly, Apollo 13 vividly illustrated the dangers of people working in space and how teams must adapt to rapidly changing circumstances. The Team: The Apollo 13 astronauts included first-time flyer Jack Swigert, 38. He was initially the backup command module pilot and joined the crew officially just 48 hours before the launch on April 11, 1970, after prime crew member Ken Mattingly was unwittingly exposed to the German measles. Since Mattingly had no immunity, NASA doctors yanked him from the mission over commander Jim Lovell's protests. Jim Lovell, 42, was the world's most traveled astronaut. He had three missions and 572 spaceflight hours of experience. Lovell participated in Apollo 8, the first mission to circle the moon, and flew two Gemini missions — including a 14-day endurance run. Rounding out the crew was Fred Haise, 36, who previously was a backup crew member on Apollo 8 and 11. The Incident: On the evening of April 13, when the crew was 200,000 miles from Earth and closing in on the moon, mission controller Sy Liebergot saw a low-pressure warning signal on a hydrogen tank in Odyssey. The signal could have shown a problem or could have indicated the hydrogen just needed to be resettled by heating and fanning the gas inside the tank. That procedure was called a "cryo stir" and was supposed to stop the super-cold gas from settling into layers. Swigert flipped the switch for the routine procedure. A moment later, the entire spacecraft shuddered around the startled crew. Alarm lights lit up in Odyssey and in Mission Control as oxygen pressure fell and power disappeared. The crew notified Mission Control of the problem and from that dramatic moment, the mission took a significant turn from one of great anticipation to something quite different. Much later, a NASA accident investigation board determined wires were exposed in the oxygen tank through a combination of manufacturing and testing errors before flight. That fateful night, a spark from an exposed wire in the oxygen tank caused a fire, ripping apart one oxygen tank and damaging another inside the spacecraft. As you view the 25-minute clip drawn from the film, consider the following issues/questions. What emotions can you identify that come into play and what prompts a change in their demeanor? How does the team on the ground work to reframe the issue in a more positive frame – who is primarily responsible for making the transition from “gloom and doom” to one more focused on options and opportunities? What impact did the last-minute change of crew members have on the way the Apollo crew reacted and responded to the crisis as it unfolded? What lessons can you draw from the film that offer clues on how teams and/or organizations might best respond to even the most threatening change situations? What were the keys to turning this potential disaster into a huge success story? Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

26 CASE STUDY 60 Minutes to Review Diagnose the situation
Name the issue(s) Review the facts Identify key stakeholders Assess what matters Apply Kotter’s 8-Step Model Make a recommendation Brief your results Your first case study in week two takes you back to Richardson College, where an issue has surfaced that requires action on the part of the Dean for Business and Technology. The issue relates to one of the academic departments (Computer Information Systems--CIS) that reports to the Dean. All the information you should need is contained in the case summary at the end of this chapter. To facilitate your discussions it is highly recommended you designate a recorder/reporter to capture and brief your results. You should also designate a time keeper and perhaps even a facilitator to keep you on track. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

27 SUMMARY Know about the process of change.
Know who in the system has the resources relevant to various change efforts. Maintain a high level of awareness of new practices. Work to achieve a system with a diversity of views and approaches. Always hold a total system view of change and its effects. It is simply inevitable. Change is something that will happen no matter how hard we try to stop it. Change is a part of the world in which we live. With every passing moment, things change. Sometimes, the changes that take place in our lives are slow, and sometimes even anticipated. While other times, the changes are abrupt. Abrupt changes can throw us into a place of fear and uncertainty. Even anticipated changes may make us feel fear or anxiety for what is to come. Moreover, changes (even anticipated ones) do not always produce an outcome that we favor. Given the extent to which change invades our life, personally and professionally, it is vital we master the concepts associated with the change process. Moreover, applying the principles connected to managing the change process itself will greatly facilitate the progress we make as we transit the divide between the here and now and whatever is to come next. You may begin to question whether you made the right decision. You may begin to wonder why, if this was what you wanted, do you feel so sad. You may wonder, why? Why did this happen to you? You did not deserve this. Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide

28 WRITING AND REFLECTION
Reflect on the discussion that we had in this seminar. What are the major issues and ideas you noted? ________________________________________________ Which of these issues relate most to your journey as a leader? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Foundation Academy ‐ Facilitators Guide


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