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Opposites II: Directional Opposites

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Two bodies A & B Two bodies A & B Moving in straight lines at speeds S1 and S2 Moving in straight lines at speeds S1 and S2 Move in opposites directions if Move in opposites directions if Speed of A to B = (S1+S2) Speed of A to B = (S1+S2)

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Directions Lexical items denote opposite directions if: Lexical items denote opposite directions if: Two bodies following the items move in opposite directionsTwo bodies following the items move in opposite directions All adverbs and prepositions All adverbs and prepositions All directions must have: All directions must have: A base pointA base point A reference pointA reference point

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Antipodals A pair of lexical opposites are antipodals if: A pair of lexical opposites are antipodals if: One part of the pair represents an extreme on an axisOne part of the pair represents an extreme on an axis And the other part of the pair represents the correspondig extreme in the other directionAnd the other part of the pair represents the correspondig extreme in the other direction TopButtom (Middle)

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Counterparts Any uniform shape with an irregularity – its counterpart is where the irregularity is reversed Any uniform shape with an irregularity – its counterpart is where the irregularity is reversed Examples Examples Hill vs. ValleyHill vs. Valley Bump vs. DentBump vs. Dent Male vs femaleMale vs female But only in relation with organs But only in relation with organs

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Reversives One of the most interesting classes of directional opposites – pair of verbs which denote motion or change in opposite directions. Two ways of characterising opposite direction: A B (two determinate states) Ex. appear/disappear A B (two relative states) Ex. lengthen/shorten

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Reversives Another type of classification: Independent reversives, where there is no necessity for the final state of either verb to be a recurrence of a former state. (with some exceptions e.g. fill/empty) Restitutives – members of this group denote the restitution of a former state Ex.

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Reversives Independent reversives’ behaviour with unstressed “again” Again replaces the verb denoting the recurrence of the former state even though not expressed linguistically. Reversibles are thus verbs only potentially possessing a reversive partner

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Reversives Independent reversives are either: morphologically derived from adjectival opposites semantically related to adverbial or adjectival opposites Possible to have a pair of reversives related to a pair of adjectives that are not themselves opposites (Gas and liquid)

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Congruence Variants & Pseudo- opposites Non-canonical relations Non-canonical relations Opposites: hypo/super-type Opposites: hypo/super-type Victim MurdererrapistEtc. The relation of opposition to super-opposite to super-opposite Incompatibles

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WORDS The term word is much more difficult to define in a technical sense, and like many other linguistic terms, there are often arguments about what exactly.

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