Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14, Section 2: Urban Land Use Standards: SEV1c, 5d"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 14, Section 2: Urban Land Use Standards: SEV1c, 5d
2 What is urbanization?The movement of people from rural areas to cities.Mostly caused by people searching for jobs
3 Fast Growth vs. Slow Growth Urban areas that grow quickly:Not enough infrastructure to support so many peopleTraffic jams b/c not enough roadsOvercrowded schools b/c not enough school buildingsOverflowing or malfunctioning sewer systemsToo many people can cause living conditions for all to deteriorate- called urban crisis.Infrastructure was introduced in an earlier chapter. Infrastructure is anything that a society builds for public use. Roads, bridges, canals, water treatment plants, power lines, police stations, schools, libraries, hospitals are all examples.Shanty town on the outskirts of Hong Kong
4 Fast Growth vs. Slow Growth Urban areas that grow slowly:Roads & public transportation are built to handle growth.Traffic flows easily.Green spaces & recreational areas are planned.Green spaces provide temperature moderation for the city, a place for rainwater to seep into soil (instead of flooding) and a place to relax.The more concrete & asphalt surfaces you have in a city, the more likely you will see flooding on streets during heavy rains. When you have green areas near roads the soil acts like a sponge and soaks up rainwater. Concrete/asphalt do not have the capacity to act like a sponge.Concrete buildings absorb and retain a lot of heat. Green spaces that contain trees, grass, soil will reflect this heat or trap and use it so city doesn’t get too hot.
5 What are the suburbs? Areas on the outskirts of a city. People usually commute into city via car or public transportation.When city expands to countryside its called urban sprawl.Suburbs are usually built on farmland or in denuded forests. If population grows & urban sprawl continues, where will we grow our food?
6 What are problems associated with urban sprawl? Marginal Land UseLand that is not suitable for buildingMountain sidesCoastal areasIf city is poorly planned for future growth then suburbs may expand into marginal lands.Ex: Los Angeles was built in a valley. As population grew, people moved up the side of mountains to build homes. Homes subject to landslides.
7 What are problems associated with urban sprawl? 2. Heat Island EffectCities are warmer than rural areasRoads/buildings trap and store more heat than vegetation.Can alter local weather patternsHot air in city rises, cools, causes rainIf fewer green spaces to absorb rainfall then have more floodingHeat leads to human health problems- heat strokeUrban Heat Islands on The Weather Channel - YouTube
8 How SHOULD cities be planned? Land-use planning- determining in advance how land will be usedWhere will houses go?Where will businesses be located?What areas should be protected for recreation & wildlife?Where will our water come from?
9 How SHOULD cities be planned? Mass Transit systemsBusesTrains (NY subway, MARTA, Maglevs)Using mass transitSaves energyReduces trafficReduces air pollutionDecreases land covered by road/parking lot b/c can be built above/below ground.Maglevs are magnetic levitation trains. Use magnets to start, stop, propel the train.Maglev train video clip- The Futures Channel
10 How SHOULD cities be planned? Open Spaces (aka greenbelts)Land within urban area set aside for scenic & recreational enjoyment.Ex: parks, gardens, bike trails, hiking trailsImportant forPollution filtrationCO2 removalTemperature controlAbsorbing water from rainstorm runoffExercise & relaxation
11 Atlanta’s Beltline Project Transforming 22 miles of old railroad track into space for walking, biking, recreation.First part is complete.Government trying to raise money for entire projectBeltLine Provides New Life to Railroad Tracks in Atlanta - NYTimes.com
12 What tools are used by land use planners to plan development? Geographic Information Systems (GIS)- computerized system for storing, manipulating, & viewing geographic data.Allows planner to see layers of information so can see what is present and what could be added/altered to an area.
13 What are the problems associated with land-use planning? Land-Use planning is difficult to follow through with b/cGovernment requires environmental impact reports of any building projectsCitizens have right to comment on reportsMany disagreements over plans
14 You should be able to…Describe the urban crisis & explain how people are addressing it.Explain how urban areas create heat islands.Explain how open spaces provide environmental benefits to urban areas.Describe how a GIS system can be used as a land use planning tool.