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Supplemental to Caroline C. Fitz, Alyssa N. Zucker and Laina Y. Bay-Cheng Vol. 36(3), September 2012 and podcast DS1.

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Presentation on theme: "Supplemental to Caroline C. Fitz, Alyssa N. Zucker and Laina Y. Bay-Cheng Vol. 36(3), September 2012 and podcast DS1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supplemental to Caroline C. Fitz, Alyssa N. Zucker and Laina Y. Bay-Cheng Vol. 36(3), September 2012 and podcast DS1

2  Explore potential differences among women who endorse feminist ideals but not a feminist identity  Examine the phenomenon of “I am not a feminist, but…”  (see also Zucker, PWQ, 2004) DS2

3  A response to discrimination and marginalization  Aims to empower women and produce equality  Can manifest in individuals’ attitudes, identities, or both  What does feminism mean to you? DS3

4  Who is a feminist? ◦ Women who label themselves as feminists and hold feminist attitudes  Who is a nonlabeler? ◦ Women who do not label themselves as feminist yet hold feminist attitudes  Who is a nonfeminist? ◦ Women who neither label themselves nor hold feminist attitudes DS4

5  Quasi-feminists: individuals who closely resemble feminists in their attitudes and values but not identification  Neoliberals: individuals who hold some of the same positions as feminists on certain issues but for different ideological reasons DS5

6  Why might an individual be a “quasi-feminist?  Stigmatization of feminists  Little or no exposure to positive portrayals of feminists DS6

7  What is a neoliberal ideology?  Belief an equitable society is formed by personal responsibility and competition  The “American Dream”: Hard work + ability = success -regardless of group membership DS7

8 FEMINISTNEOLIBERAL  Support equal pay for equal work  Support affirmative action  Question sexual double standard  Support social justice and collectivism  Support equal pay for equal work  Oppose regulating opportunities  Adhere more to sexual double standard  See social justice as unnecessary-focus on individual effort and merit DS8

9  Most past research has suggested nonlabelers are either: ◦ All quasi-feminist  Or ◦ All Neoliberal  This study examines potential differences among nonlabelers into these two groups DS9

10 Quasi-FeministsNeoliberals  Report weaker sexist beliefs  Report less support of meritocratic, system- justifying and social dominance beliefs  Report stronger sexist beliefs  Report stronger support of meritocratic, system- justifying and social dominance beliefs DS10

11  Sample 1: ◦ 211 women ◦ Mean age ◦ 153 (73%) in 1 st or 2 nd year of college  Sample 2: ◦ 301 women ◦ Mean age ◦ 222 (73.8%) in 1 st or 2 nd year of college DS11

12  Feminist Beliefs and Behavior Measure ◦ Categorize participants as nonfeminists, feminists or nonlabelers ◦ Extent of agreement with three statements:  Girls and women have not been treated as well as boys and men in our society  Women and men should be paid equally for the same work  Women’s unpaid work should be more socially valued  Indicate whether they identify as feminist DS12

13  Perceptions of Meritocracy Inventory ◦ Extent to which one believes in a system of equal opportunity where success is based on individual merit  Just World Scale ◦ Extent to which one believes people get what they work for and what they deserve  Modern Sexism Scale ◦ Extent to which an individual believes sexism no longer impacts society DS13

14  Ambivalent Sexism Inventory ◦ Attitudes toward women that are antagonistic or attitudes that reinforce traditional stereotypes about women  Equal Opportunity Scale ◦ How strongly one believes that hard work and ability are the determinants of success and support free competition without social policy to enforce equality  Social Dominance Orientation Scale for Others ◦ Preference for inequality among social groups DS14

15  Feminists=60 participants  Nonfeminists= 62 participants  Nonlabelers= 89 participants ◦ 45 (51%)=neoliberal ◦ 44 (49%)= quasi-feminist DS15

16 Quasi-FeministsNeoliberals  Report weaker sexist beliefs  Modern Sexism Scale S1:M= 2.07 S2: M=2.08  Hostile Sexism S2:M= 2.47  Benevolent Sexism S2:M=2.70  Report stronger sexist beliefs  Modern Sexism Scale S1:M= 2.67 S2: M=2.60  Hostile Sexism S2: M= 2.72  Benevolent Sexism S2: M=3.06 All means between quasi-feminists and neoliberals were significantly different Hypothesis was supported DS16

17 Quasi-FeministsNeoliberals  Report less support of meritocratic beliefs  Perceptions of Meritocracy Inventory S1:M= 3.21 S2: M=2.97  Report more support of meritocratic beliefs  Perceptions of Meritocracy Inventory S1:M= 3.89 S2: M=3.84 All means between quasi-feminists and neoliberals were significantly different Hypothesis was supported DS17

18 Quasi-FeministsNeoliberals  Report less system- justifying beliefs  Just World Scale S1:M= 2.76 S2: M=2.45  Equal Opportunity Beliefs S2: M=2.77  Report more system- justifying beliefs  Just World Scale S1:M= 3.94 S2: M=3.81  Equal Opportunity Beliefs S2: M=3.72 All means between quasi-feminists and neoliberals were significantly different Hypothesis was supported DS18

19 Quasi-FeministsNeoliberals  Report less social dominance beliefs  Social Dominance Orientation S2: M=2.36  Report more social dominance beliefs  Social Dominance Orientation S2: M=2.91 Means between quasi-feminists and neoliberals were significantly different Hypothesis was supported DS19

20  See article for means for feminists and nonfeminists for all measures  See article for additional information regarding cluster analysis and MANOVA results DS20

21  What are the possible implications of these findings?  Neoliberals see gender equality as a meritocratic issue rather than a feminist issue  Political differences among nonfeminists, feminists, quasi-feminists, and neoliberals DS21

22  Experiences of discrimination can have a detrimental impact on well-being ◦ This impact may be heightened for neoliberals who believe the world is fair and just  Attributing negative experiences to discrimination can protect self-esteem ◦ Neoliberals may be at risk for blaming themselves rather than recognizing bias ◦ Quasi-feminists are more likely to recognize social injustice when it occurs and not blame themselves DS22

23  Neoliberals may be less likely than quasi- feminists or feminists to work to improve women and other minority groups’ well-being  Neoliberals can be allies in activism efforts if issues are presented in terms of fairness  Quasi-feminists may engage in more activism if they are exposed to positive attitudes about feminists DS23

24  Where should this topic of study go next?  Develop a single questionnaire to differentiate between quasi- feminists and neoliberals  Explore the impact of SES, ethnicity, sexual orientation or other identity factors DS24

25 DS25


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