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**Navigation Study Guide**

Chapter 2: Compass Instructor: Forrest Meiere All Questions and Problems from the Study Guide PowerPoint Presentation by Forrest Meiere

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**Navigation Study Guide**

S2-1 In the modern compass, the north-seeking magnets are attached to a ______________ or compass rose. lightweight dial S2-2 The dials of most compasses are graduated in degrees, with numbers every 30°, and the ______________ (N,E,S,&W). Arrows or other marks are sometimes used to denote the __________________ (NE,SE,SW, & NW). cardinal points intercardinal points S2-3 The compass dial is supported on a jeweled bearing which turns on a pivot. In turn, the pivot is mounted in a _____________, designed to keep the dial level with the horizon if the vessel pitches or rolls. gimbal system

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**Navigation Study Guide**

S2-4 Fastened to the gimbal is one or more against which the dial graduations can be read to determine the direction of the vessel relative to the card. Lubber's Lines S2-5 There are two principal types of compass dial design, the ___________________ and the _____________________. top-reading compass front-reading compass S2-6 During the mid-1920's an electronic compass termed a compass was developed for aircraft. In recent years, this has become available to the mariner. fluxgate

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**(no need to memorize this list; FM)**

Navigation Study Guide S2-7 The modern magnetic compass is highly sensitive and is able to align itself with , such as the earth's magnetic field. weak magnetic fields S2-8 However, the magnetic field aboard a vessel is not solely due to the earth's magnetic field. Other shipboard magnetic fields are caused by a variety of items, including: shipboard electronics, windshield wiper, motors, compressed gas horns, tachometers, electrical motors, television sets and other equipment. (no need to memorize this list; FM)

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**Navigation Study Guide**

S2-9 These additional fields also affect the compass, with the result that the of the vessel may differ from its compass heading magnetic heading S2-10 Simply put, is the difference between the direction that the compass actually points and the direction that it would point if there were no local magnetic fields aboard the vessel. deviation S2-11 The mariner has two options for dealing with deviation: _______ any residual error or correct for deviation. ignore

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**Navigation Study Guide**

S2-12 Unlike variation, which depends solely on the vessel's position, deviation varies with the vessel's ________. heading S2-13 The process of developing a deviation curve is often termed __________________________________. swinging ship or swinging the compass S2-14 If the compass bearing of an object is less than the magnetic bearing, as determined from the chart, the deviation is ____. A simple rule is “ _____________________.” east compass least, error east

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**Navigation Study Guide**

S2-15 A device for measuring relative bearings is termed a pelorus S2-16 The letter sequence TVMDC is used to describe the sequence of starting with a course, correcting for __________ to calculate a course, and finally allowing for to calculate a course. True Variation Magnetic Deviation Compass S2-17 When converting from a true course to a compass course (i.e. uncorrecting), westerly variation and deviation are to be added

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**(No need to memorize these errors. FM)**

Navigation Study Guide S2-18 When converting from a compass to a true course (correcting), variation and deviation are to be and variation and deviation are to be subtracted. East added West S2-19 It is important to remember that compass readings are most accurate only when the vessel is level, , and maintaining a constant course. traveling at a constant speed S2-20 Otherwise a series of additional compass errors can arise, including _____________________ ____________________________________________. northerly turning error acceleration error; oscillation error; heeling error (No need to memorize these errors. FM) End of Questions

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P2-1: T V M D C 29W 287C 258M P2-2: T V M D C 060M 056C 4E P2-3: T V M D C 9W W 045C M

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P2-4: T V M D C 013 9W 022M P2-5: T V M D C 022M 4E 018C P2-6: T V M D C 013 9W 022M 4E 018C 270R (True Bearing to Vessel)

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P2-7 through P2-16: Variation = 015E T V M D C 15E P T V M D C 15E 035C M 5E P T V M D C 15E 135C M 1W P T V M D C 149 15E M 1W 135C 035R 184 (True) Bearing to Buoy

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P T V M D C 15E 285C M 3W 090R (Subtract 360) 027 (True) Lighthouse Bearing P T V M D C 027 15E +180 to find reciprocal 207 (True) Reciprocal Bearing T V M D C 207 15E 192M Reciprocal

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P T V M D C 15E 185C M 4W 285R = 121: Bearing +180 (to find reciprocal) 301 (True) Reciprocal P T V M D C 110 15E 095M 3E 092C 285R Buoy “6” Bearing 002C <== 362C

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**Navigation Study Guide**

P T V M D C 200 15E 185M 4W 189C P T V M D C 15E 145C M 2W P T V M D C 15E C M End of Problems

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