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9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 1 S2 Task Force Status (String test definition) and High Priority R&D Items Tom Himel.

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Presentation on theme: "9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 1 S2 Task Force Status (String test definition) and High Priority R&D Items Tom Himel."— Presentation transcript:

1 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 1 S2 Task Force Status (String test definition) and High Priority R&D Items Tom Himel

2 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 2 Contents S2: The process we followed Reasons for a system test Industrialization studies S2: Recommendation Other R&D items

3 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 3 Overview Task force set up by the Global R&D board –What are the reasons and goals of a system test? Start with TRC R2 list. –Determine how many RF units are needed as a system test before ILC construction –Do they need to be in a string? –Is beam needed? Report is (hopefully) final, awaiting approval by the EC. URL:

4 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 4 Members Hasan Padamsee (Co-Chair) Tom Himel (Co-Chair) Bob Kephart Chris Adolphsen Hitoshi Hayano Nobu Toge Hans Weise Consultants: Sergei Nagaitsev, Nikolai Solyak, Lutz Lilje, Marc Ross, Daniel Schulte

5 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 5 Process Followed 2 paths: 1.What do we want to test in a system test? How big a system is needed for each test? Is beam required? Has it been done or can it be done at TTF? 2.What is the scale of the industrial effort and how will this provide a smooth transition to the start of main linac construction? Do the modules produced in this effort need a system test or does it produce so many RF units that we may as well use them in a system test? Then compared results and made an overall plan

6 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 6 Process: 1. Reasons for test Review TRC R2 goals and revise them See what tests/ test facilities are presently planned FLASH (TTF-II), SMTF (ILCTA@FNAL), XFEL and STF Determine total amount of equipment planned or existing

7 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 7 The LIST Made a list of things that needed testing. Started with TRC R2 list. Spreadsheet with full list of 28 items is in our report. Some items only need testing because of changes made or planned since TTF. Not all items MUST be tested. There is a cost/risk trade-off to be considered.

8 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 8 The LIST: Items too big to be practical Checking that DFS steering really controls the emittance growth would take well over 10 RF units with best RF gun as beam source. A full check of cryogen flows and controls requires a 2.5 km string (partial test can be simulated with much less) Checking that cavity misalignments don’t cause emittance growth

9 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 9 The LIST: Statistical effects where more is better and enough is too many Checking reliability is as good as required could require full ILC. –Some aspects best tested in standalone stress tests (tuner motors, feedthroughs…) Dark current –Depends on statistics of number and location of emitters. –Can calibrate and check simulations of radiation/heat load due to captured dark current. Long term testing of cryomodules to evaluate degradation or other weaknesses before large scale series production begins –e.g. HOM failures in SNS caused by end wall heating due to field emissions. TTF has seen no degradation. We cannot for-sure find all potential problems, but can reduce the phase space

10 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 10 The LIST: Items that can be fully tested Check what gradient spread can be handled by LLRF system. This test should be done with and without beam loading. Check for heating due to high freq HOMs Check amplitude and phase stability Check static and dynamic heat loads Note that all of the above can be done with 1 RF unit

11 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 11 The LIST: Most important reasons for a system test Do a system integration test with near final components and full gradient to demonstrate it works. Check for alignment problems caused by forces from the cryomodule interconnect. Check cryo-load from HOMs (both trapped and propagating).

12 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 12 Industrialization needs Looked at how previous high tech projects have been industrialized Made sample cavity/cryomodule industrialization plans Counted how many cryomodules we may have as a function of time. Industrially produced cryomodules will clearly have to be tested either individually or in a system test. With present plans to industrially produce cryomodules in all 3 regions, test facilities will be needed. At least one test facility will need ILC like beam.

13 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 13 Industrialization timing Looked at industrialization of SSC, RHIC, LHC magnets and LEP cavities Some items we looked at were industrialized well before project approval. SC wire and Niobium sources for cavities are examples of this. Some items we looked at were prototyped in the labs and transferred to industry after project approval. LEP cavities and all the magnets are examples of this. It is yet to be decided how ILC cryomodules will be industrialized. Suspect S2 will be reconvened to make these plans. We have not considered the size of facilities needed to test the production cryomodules.

14 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 14 S2 Executive Summary The TTF facility at DESY has provided valuable system tests of many elements of the ILC technology. More tests can and should be performed there. Further testing activities for the XFEL, as well as the complete XFEL, will continue to provide valuable experience. However several important changes to the TTF design are being planned for the ILC. These include a higher gradient, relocation of the quad to the center of the cryomodule, shortening of the cavity end-group, and a new tuner design. Also under discussion are different modulators, klystrons, and cavity shapes among other developments. These design changes are numerous and major enough that a further system test is warranted. The basic building block of the ILC linac is one RF unit containing three cryomodules with full RF power controlled as in the final linac. The minimum size system test needed to confirm the performance of a new design is a single RF unit with ILC like beam. As many tests are statistical in nature, a longer string test with several RF units or multiple tests with one RF unit would be better. The primary reason beam is needed is to check that higher order modes (HOMs) are coupled out and absorbed so they do not cause a significant heat load at liquid helium temperature.

15 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 15 S2 Executive Summary All three regions have expressed a desire for command of basic ILC SCRF technology and are preparing to manufacture cryomodules locally. Local test facilities at the scale of 1 RF unit are under construction in Asia and the Americas. Europe is trying to increase its ILC related efforts with a forthcoming proposal to the European Commission (FP7). The proposal will be based on expanding the usage of existing infrastructures. As construction of the project starts, a test facility (or facilities) will be needed to qualify manufactured RF unit components of the final consolidated ILC linac system design. These components may be built at industries in different regions. One of the possible scenarios is to build a test string with contributions of a total of several RF units from the three regional teams. There are many factors that will influence the choice of the size of the string and whether the goals can be accomplished instead through several smaller tests or one long string. These factors will be coupled to the future industrialization strategy adopted for ILC main linac components. Therefore we cannot at this stage determine the ideal scale of this second phase of system tests.

16 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 16 S2 Executive Summary Our plan is based on a natural schedule for components to be ready. Therefore some low risk items are tested earlier than some high risk items. The phasing of the plan recognizes development times necessary for the final design of components, as well as the need for a few iterations that may be necessary to reach ILC specifications for the full RF unit, especially if these have to be implemented outside the TTF. There are number of phases to the system tests we propose (starting with 1 cryomodule and ending with several RF units). Phase 1.3 (at least 1 RF unit of near final ILC design) should be successfully tested before more than 1% of the final industrially produced ILC cryomodules are manufactured. This keeps the risk of having to rebuild a large number of cryomodules low while accepting a moderate risk of a schedule delay and having to rebuild 1% of the cryomodules. This risk is moderate because the successful phase 0 and 0.5 tests were done with cryomodules only slightly different than the final design. Note that significant design changes require new tests. Section ‎‎‎5 elaborates on this. Experience shows that there is a significant lag (2-3 years) from a design change to construction of hardware to completion of a test. For this reason it is important to limit the number of changes and to make them as soon as possible. In particular, if design changes are needed to make the cryomodule transportable or cheaper to manufacture then these changes should be made soon. Put in another way, if these and other critical design decisions are done too late then the required engineering and testing cycles will necessitate delay of the ILC construction timeline accordingly.

17 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 17 Another way to estimate phase 2 size Assume that the probability of a failure occurring in a cryomodule is distributed as 1/time, so the probabilities of a failure occurring between 1 day and 20 days, between 20 days and a year, and between a year and 20 years are roughly equal. This corresponds to the leading edge of the bathtub curve (infant mortality) and ignores the trailing edge caused by items wearing out and the flat bottom of the curve due to steady-state failures. Before construction begins, assume we want to show that less than 10% of the cryomodules that survive the first day will fail in 20 years. Thus we would tolerate roughly 3% failures in each of the three times periods noted above. To show that the failure rate will not exceed 3% in each of these periods, we would need to test roughly 30 cryomodules for 20 days or 15 cryomodules for a year. The latter is more reasonable, that is, under these assumptions the phase 2 test would be the operation of 5 RF units for a year. While this model is very crude and has questionable assumptions, it probably does set the right scale for the size of a phase 2 system test.

18 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 18 Rough S2 Schedule

19 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 19 Other High Priority R&D 53 of the >500 items on the R&D board’s list are labeled as very high priority. The full list is at: php?id=rdb%3Ardb_external%3Ardb_externa l_home&cache=cache&media=rdb:rdb_exter nal:rd_master20060407.xls php?id=rdb%3Ardb_external%3Ardb_externa l_home&cache=cache&media=rdb:rdb_exter nal:rd_master20060407.xls I’ve selected and combined them to make presentation manageble

20 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 20 Other High Priority R&D Cavity Gradient reproducibility Cavity/Cryomodule DFM – make them cheaper, make them transportable Fast tuner development LLRF DR electron cloud, impedance, instabilities, ions, fast kicker E+ target and adiabatic matching device High availability designs: magnets, power supplies, controls … Timing distribution over long distances

21 9Apr07 Fermilab Steering Group 21 Other High Priority R&D Feedback systems – intra-train, system model Diagnostics: BPMs, laser wires, beam halo monitor, collimators Improved multi-beam klystron Marx modulator Crab cavity

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