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Petroleum Generation Istvan Csato University of South Carolina Department of Geological Sciences Petroleum Geology Class 745 Spring 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "Petroleum Generation Istvan Csato University of South Carolina Department of Geological Sciences Petroleum Geology Class 745 Spring 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 Petroleum Generation Istvan Csato University of South Carolina Department of Geological Sciences Petroleum Geology Class 745 Spring 2002

2 I. Organic Matter II. Petroleum Generation III. Source Rock Evaluation IV. Thermal Maturation Models

3 Sequence Stratigraphy

4 Controls on total organic matter Productivity Grain size Sedimentation rate Oxidation/Reduction

5 Preservation of Organic Matter Demaison and Moore, 1980

6 Conversion of Organic Matter Barker, 1996 biopolymers bitumen biomarkers

7 I. Organic Matter II. Petroleum Generation III. Source Rock Evaluation IV. Thermal Maturation Models

8 Conversion of Kerogen Barker, 1996 Organic matter: 1% Kerogen 90% Bitumen 10%

9 Kerogen Evolution Paths Tissot et al., 1974

10 Variation of the HC/TOC, Los Angeles and Ventura Basins Philippi, 1965

11 Depths and Temperatures for Onset of Oil Generation Tissot et al., 1975

12 General Scheme for Hydrocarbon Formation Tissot et al., 1974

13 I. Organic Matter II. Petroleum Generation III. Source Rock Evaluation IV. Thermal Maturation Models

14 1.Does the the rock have sufficient organic matter? 2.Is the organic matter capable of generating? 3.Has this organic matter generated petroleum? 4.Has the generated petroleum migrated out? 5.Is the rock oil-prone or gas-prone? Questions for exploration geologist:

15 Quantity of Organic Matter: TOC must be greater than 0.5% Type of Organic Matter:

16 Thermal Alteration Index, Paris Basin Correia, 1971 Maturity

17 Kerogen Maturation Profile, Louisiana Gulf Coast Barker, 1996 Vitrinite: woody, Type III kerogen Maturity

18 Vitrinite Reflectance Data Dow and O’Connor, 1982 Maturity

19 Vitrinite Reflectance Profile, Elmsworth Field, Canada Welte et al., 1984 Maturity

20 Disturbing of Vitrinite Reflectance Barker, 1996

21 Elemental Data For Kerogen Peters, 1986

22 Increase of S1 with Depth Barker, 1996 Pyrolysis Tmax S1 S2

23 Yield of Hydrocarbons with Increasing Temperature Barker, 1974 Pyrolysis Tmax S2/TOC = HI S3/TOC = OI S1 S2 S1S2

24 Changes in TR and Tmax Espitalie et al., 1977

25 HI versus OI Peters, 1986

26 Evaluation of Geochemical Parameters Peters, 1986

27 I. Organic Matter II. Petroleum Generation III. Source Rock Evaluation IV. Thermal Maturation Models

28 KER = BIT + RESIDUE At t=0 KER= Vo, BIT=0 At t>0 KER=Vo-Vt, BIT=Vt dV/dt= k(Vo-Vt) k=A*e [-E/RT] Kinetics of Chemical Reactions Arrhenius equation R =Gas constant (0.008314 KJ/mol 0 K) T=absolute temperature E=activation energy A=frequency factor

29 Activation Energy Barker, 1996

30 Bond Energies March, 1985

31 Increasing Reaction Rate with Temperature Barker, 1996

32 Bitumen Release Curves with Different Activation Energies Barker, 1996

33 Bitumen Release Curves with Different Frequency Factors Barker, 1996

34 Increase in Reaction Rate Barker, 1996

35 Bitumen Release Curves for 8 Parallel Reactions Juntgen and Klein, 1975

36 Distribution of Activation Energies, Paris Basin Tissot et al., 1987

37 Temperature Factors used by Lopatin Barker, 1996  maturity = (  t i )(r ni ) TTI (Time-Temperature Index)

38 Burial History Plot Barker, 1996

39 Calculated TTI Barker, 1996

40 Calibration of TTI Waples, 1980

41 Time-Temperature Reconstruction, Big Horn Basin, Montana Hagen and Surdam, 1984

42 Kinetic Model of Tissot and Espitalie, 1975 Tissot and Espitalie, 1975

43 Kinetic Model of Sweeney et al., 1987 Sweeney et al., 1987


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