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Emily Baxter a brief look at criminal records The Council on Crime and Justice Funding provided by the Emma B. Howe Memorial Foundation of The Minneapolis.

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Presentation on theme: "Emily Baxter a brief look at criminal records The Council on Crime and Justice Funding provided by the Emma B. Howe Memorial Foundation of The Minneapolis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emily Baxter a brief look at criminal records The Council on Crime and Justice Funding provided by the Emma B. Howe Memorial Foundation of The Minneapolis Foundation

2  How many people in Minnesota are in prison, jail, on probation or on parole?  A. 1 in 5  B. 1 in 18  C.1 in 26  D.1 in 31 POP QUIZ!

3  How many people were under correctional control in Minnesota in 1982?  A. 1 in 8  B. 1 in 28  C. 1 in 76  D.1 in 98

4 CORRECTIONAL CONTROL IN THE STATES listed as they appear, top to bottom: probation, jail, parole, prison

5  Approximately how many Minnesotans come home from prison each year?  A. 3,000  B.7,000  C.12,000  D.13,000

6  Minnesota has the _____ highest rate of people under correctional control in the nation  A. 2 nd  B.8 th  C.23 rd  D.48 th

7 MSGC REPORT ON FELONIES

8  How many people in Minnesota have a criminal record?  A. 1 in 4  B.1 in 12  C. 1 in 24  D.1 in 32

9  In the mid-2000’s, African American males in Minnesota were arrested for drug-related offenses at a rate ______ times higher than White males  A.1  B. 10  C. 100  D. 1000

10  In Minnesota, African American / Black individuals comprise 35.4% of the incarcerated population and 4.6% of the general population  American Indian individuals comprise 6.8% of the incarcerated population and 1.2% of the general population

11  Juvenile records are private and are expunged once the youth turns 18.  True or False?

12  Some juvenile records are destroyed once the youth reaches the age of 28  Some records are public JUVENILE RECORDS DON’T DISAPPEAR

13  In 2009, how many children in Minnesota between the ages of 10 and 17 were arrested for serious offenses?  A. 110  B. 1,100  C. 11,000  D. 110,000

14  30.2 percent were arrested for an offense other than a minor traffic violation  Increase in arrests for drug-related offenses, zero- tolerance policies in school, and a more aggressive and punitive justice system Study published in 2011 Pediatrics journal ONE THIRD OF US YOUNG ADULTS ARRESTED BY AGE 23

15  Only convictions appear on a criminal background report.  True or False?

16  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA)  Minnesota Court Information System (MNCIS)  Police Department  City Attorney  Sheriff’s Department  County Attorney  State Attorney General  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private data-miners  Private theft databases WHERE RECORDS ARE KEPT

17  BCA  MNCIS  FBI  Private data miners *Incomplete and inaccurate WHERE RECORDS ARE KEPT

18  Levels:  Felony  Gross Misdemeanor  Misdemeanor  Petty Misdemeanor  Dispositions  Arrest  Dismissal  Stay of Adjudication  Stay of Imposition  Stay of Execution  Executed Sentence  Acquittal WHAT RECORDS SAY

19 DISPOSITION  Arrest  Dismissal = no probable cause  CFD = no plea, no conviction  SOA = no conviction  SOI = misdemeanor  SOE = no prison  Executed sentence = sit time

20  Minnesota Statute 245C.15  direct care to vulnerable people DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES

21  Misdemeanor:  Wrongfully obtaining assistance  Food stamp fraud  Issuance of dishonored checks  Criminal vehicular homicide  First through fifth degree assaults  Violation of an Order for Protection  Theft SEVEN

22  Gross misdemeanor:  Same as above, plus:  Disorderly house  Burglary  Possession of burglary tools TEN

23  Felony:  Same as above, plus:  Robbery  Terroristic threats  Chapter 152  Any felony involving drugs or booze FIFTEEN

24  Any level:  Agg. robbery, Crim sex, First degree arson  Felony level:  First or second degree assault, Malicious punishment, Neglect PERMANENT

25  Preponderance of the evidence  Fifteen to thirty days to respond  Few conclusive findings; no traveling set asides BURDEN

26  DHS disqualification process separate from court process for expungement  If a client gets a DHS disqualification letter, encourage the client to respond immediately and request a set-aside  If a client fails to respond to a DHS disqualification letter within the time permitted, the client forfeits his or her right to a hearing about the facts underlying the disqualification  A DHS set-aside request can proceed at the same time as a petition for expungement. The client must keep in mind that they are completely separate proceedings DHS DISQUALIFICATIONS

27  According to a SHRM study conducted last year, approximately what percentage of employers are conducting criminal history reports on job applicants?  A. 32%  B.54%  C.78%  D.92% BEYOND SANCTIONS

28 DO YOU CONDUCT CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECKS FOR ANY JOB CANDIDATES? 28 Note: n = 347. Not sure” responses were excluded from this analysis. Slide adapted from January 22, 2010 SHRM presentation titled: Background Checking: Conducting Criminal Background Checks

29 HOW INFLUENTIAL IS/WOULD BE THE DISCOVERY OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING IN YOUR DECISION TO NOT EXTEND A JOB OFFER? 29 Note: n=312.

30 Arrest Date: 2004/10/01 Historical Local ID#: Controlling Agency: MN MINEAPOLIS PD STATE ID NUMBER: MN FBI NUMBER: Count: 1Offense Date:Case Number: Type: MINNESOTA STATUTE Statute: S3 Charge: Criminal Damage to Property Other Statute: MN MOC/UOC: Disposition: HELDCourt File: COMMENT: CONTRLD-SUB-STREET COURT DATE: 2005/01/16 MN HENNEPIN CO DISTRICT COURT CONFINEMENT AGENCY: PROBATION AGENCY: MN HENNEPIN CO PROBATION OFF COURT COUNT: 1CASE NUMBER: SENTENCED: 2005/01/16 STATUTE: S2MOC/UOC: CHARGE: Criminal Damage to Property DISPOSITION: CONVICTEDPLEA: GuiltySJIS NUM: COURT FILE NUMBER: CONVICTION LEVEL: Misdemeanor SENTENCE PRONOUNCED SENTENCE: 60DNO SAME/SIMILAR PROBATION: 1YIMPOS SENT STYD CONDITIONAL CONFINEMENT:RANDOM TESTING FINED: $128 COMMENT: CUSTODY SUPERVISION DATE: 2006/01/21AGENCY: MN HENNEPIN CO DISTRICT COURT CASE NUMBER: CUSTODY ID NUMBER: CUSTODY ACTION: DISCHARGED CUSTODY START DATE: CUSTODY EXPIRATION DATE: OTHER: THIS OFFENSE IS DEEMED TO BE A MISDEMEANOR UNDER PROVISIONS OF M.S.A OTHER: ALL CIVIL RIGHTS ARE RESTORED AND FULL CITIZENSHIP WITH FULL RIGHT TO VOTE AND HOLD OFFICE THE SAME AS IF SAID CONVICTION HAD NOT TAKEN PLACE. THIS DOES NOT APPLY TO ANY OTHER CHARGES OF CONVICTIONS FOR WHICH SUBJECT MAY BE INCARCERATED, ON PROBATION, PAROLE OR SUPERVISED RELEASE. Note that Stays of Imposition are included in the BCA report

31 Arrest Date: 2006/04/29 Historical Local ID#: Controlling Agency: MN MINEAPOLIS PD STATE ID NUMBER: FBI NUMBER: Count: 1Offense Date:Case Number: Type: MINNESOTA STATUTE Statute: Charge: Theft Other Statute:MOC/UOC: Disposition: HELDCourt File: COMMENT: COURT DATE: 2006/05/17 CONFINEMENT AGENCY: PROBATION AGENCY: COURT COUNT: 1CASE NUMBER: SENTENCED: STATUTE: MOC/UOC: CHARGE: Theft DISPOSITION: DISMISSEDPLEA: SJIS NUM: COURT FILE NUMBER: CONVICTION LEVEL

32  Have you ever been convicted of an offense?  Have you ever been convicted of a felony?  Have you ever been arrested?  Are these questions generating useful answers? WHAT ARE EMPLOYERS ASKING?

33

34 OBTAINING RECORDS

35 choose “All MNCIS Sites – Case Search”

36 Select search by defendant

37 Make sure to print out this first page And click and print each of the cases

38 Print out each of these pages

39 HOW TO GET BCA RECORDS  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA):  Send a written request  Enclose a check or money order for $8.00 made payable to the BCA, and a self-addressed stamped envelope.  Response time is approximately two weeks.

40 REMEDIES + RESPONSES

41  DHS Appeal  Correction of Records  Return of Arrest Records  Pardon Extraordinary  Statutory Expungement  Inherent Authority Expungement  Juvenile Record Expungement Remedies/Responses

42  Arrest but no charge or  Charge but dismissal prior to a formal finding of probable cause and  No felony or gross misdemeanor conviction within the ten years prior to the arrest at issue. Minn. Stat. § 299C.11: Return of Records

43  Available for convictions only  No Juvenile Adjudications, Stays of Adjudication, or Petty Misdemeanors  Mandatory waiting period  Crime of Violence: 10 year conviction-free period  All other crimes: 5 year conviction-free period  Waiting period can be waived by Board of Pardons Pardon Extraordinary Minn. Stat. §638.02

44  Court-ordered sealing of government-held records  Not destruction of a record  Sealed records may be opened for future investigation and prosecution, and for background checks for law enforcement positions. Expungement in Minnesota

45  Juvenile and adult expungements  Two main types of adult expungements: Statutory and Inherent Authority  Two types of juvenile expungements: adjudications of delinquency and petty misdemeanors Expungements

46  1. Certain controlled substance offenses.  2. Juveniles prosecuted as adults.  3. Certain criminal proceedings not resulting in conviction.  All charges in the case resolved entirely in the petitioner’s favor Statutory (Minn. Stat. §609A)

47  Expungement prohibited.  Where predatory offense registration is required:  Murder, kidnapping, crim sex, etc.  It is unlikely that many traffic, family matters, and open files will be expunged. (Motion to seal records) Statutory – Minn. Stat. §609A

48  Dismissals and acquittals  Dismissal of grand jury indictment. State v. K.M.M., 721 N.W.2d 330 (Minn. Ct. App. 2006).  Dismissed, separate incidents or charges where petitioner plead guilty to other separate incidents or charges. State v. JRA, 714 N.W.2d 722 (Minn. Ct. App. 2006).  Continuances for dismissal. State v. C.P.H., 707 N.W.2d 699 (Minn. Ct. App. 2006) where no guilty plea was entered.  Arrests without charges, where not otherwise eligible for 299C.11.  Never pleading guilty, admitting guilt, or being found guilty. Statutory - Resolved In Favor

49  Being found guilty or pleading guilty, even if not accepted by the court. §609A.02, Subd. 3; State v. A.C.H., 710 N.W.2d 587 (Minn. Ct. App. 2006).  Admissions of guilt as a pre-requisite to diversionary programs & deferred guilty pleas. State v. J.Y.M., 711 N.W.2d 139 (Minn. Ct. App. 2006).  Being found not guilty by reason of insanity. 609A.02, Subd. 3  Stay of adjudication. State v. Davisson, 624 N.W.2d 292 (Minn. Ct. App. 2001).  Alford plea, where the defendant admitted there was sufficient evidence to convict, but maintained innocence. State v. Henkensiefken, 2005 WL (Minn. Ct. App. 2005). Not Resolved In Favor

50  Separation of Powers  The statute allows the judge to order ALL government records  In many cases, inherent authority seals only court records RIF vs. non-RIF: Why is this distinction important?

51 Presumptively granted unless the agency or jurisdiction whose records would be affected establishes by clear and convincing evidence that the interests of the public and public safety outweigh the disadvantages to the petitioner of not sealing the record. Statutory - Resolved in Favor

52  Extraordinary remedy to be granted only upon clear and convincing evidence  that it would yield a benefit to petitioner  commensurate with the disadvantage to the public and public safety of sealing the record and burdening the court and public authorities on issuing, enforcing, and monitoring an expungement order. Minn. Stat. 609A.03, subd. 5 Statutory - Certain Drugs and JCA

53  Where constitutional rights have been seriously infringed, or  When expungement will yield a benefit to petitioner commensurate with the disadvantage to the public from the elimination of the record and the burden on the court on issuing, enforcing, and monitoring an expungement order. Inherent Authority Expungement

54 Indicia used in Inherent Authority balancing test: 1.difficulties in securing employment or housing as a result of the records sought to be expunged; 2.the seriousness and nature of the offense; 3.the potential risk to the public’s right to access the records; 4.any additional offenses or rehabilitative efforts since the offense; and 5.other objective evidence of hardship under the circumstances. Inherent Authority Expungement

55  Current case law is in flux.  Prior to MDT, most cases limited a judge’s ability to order records sealed at the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension and other executive branch agencies in most cases  In view of the separation of powers, courts proceed cautiously in ordering expungement of records held by the executive branch.  Relief is appropriate when essential to the existence, dignity, and function of a court.  These essential functions include the ability to vindicate a petitioner’s legal rights and to protect the judiciary’s strength and independence. Inherent Authority Expungement

56  April 9, 2012: The COA found that a district court did not abuse its discretion by ordering the expungement of criminal records that are generated by the judicial branch and maintained by the executive branch.  Here, petitioner sought to expunge the record of an aggravated forgery conviction (Stay of Imposition, successfully completed in 2008).  Denied in 2008; granted in  Court did not seal “non-public” BCA records or DHS records Recent Appellate Decision - MDT

57  Minn. Stat. § 260B.198 subd. 6 states that the court “may expunge an adjudication of delinquency at any time that it deems advisable.”  Procedures for juvenile expungement are not defined in the statutes. Juvenile Expungements

58  Minnesota Statute 260B.198 allows the court the authority to seal executive branch records  No separation of powers conflict.  Look to Minn. R. Juv. Delinq  Public safety and best interests of child; allow for personal and social growth New Court of Appeals Case - JJP

59  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Sample of Databases

60  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Statutory - Resolved in Favor

61  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Inherent Authority

62  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Inherent Authority - MDT

63  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Juvenile expungement - JJP

64  Court records  Bureau of Criminal Apprehension  County Attorney  Police  Department of Corrections  Department of Human Services  Private Data Miners Pardon

65  Even where the order is limited:  Seals some records  Order can act as a certificate of rehabilitation  Safe Hiring – limits employer’s liability  Some misdemeanors and petty misdemeanors are not reported to the BCA  Can ask BCA to include note in record that court records were expunged Still good reasons to seek expungement

66 RELEVANT LAWS

67  Fair Credit Reporting Act  Civil Rights Act TITLE VII AND FCRA

68  Must obtain permission  Must provide pre-adverse action notice – with a copy of the report!  Must provide consumer reporting agency’s contact information FCRA – THE PROCESS

69  Cannot use arrest records alone  Cannot use blanket bans  Must engage the record  Includes consideration of nature and severity, time since offense, relationship to job, and rehabilitation CIVIL RIGHTS ACT – THE SUBSTANCE

70 SPEAKING TO EMPLOYERS

71  Advocate for your particular client  Understand the offense and be able to address concerns.  Focus on rehabilitation INDIVIDUALIZED ASSESSMENT

72  Skills and Qualifications  Position-specific readiness  Loyalty  Johns Hopkins Study  Work Ethic  Diversity  Work Opportunity Tax Credit & Bonding  Community Need BENEFITS

73  Increase your business income  Save on costs of recruiting, hiring, and training SAVE MONEY / SAVE TIME

74  LawHelpMN.org  Volunteer Lawyers Network: (612) (client intake line)  Legal Aid Services – available throughout Minnesota: lawhelpmn.org & mnlegalservices.org  Council on Crime and Justice: (612) ; crimeandjustice.org RESOURCES

75 Emily Baxter Council on Crime and Justice QUESTIONS? NOTE: The content of this document is intended for general educational purposes only, and is not legal advice. It is not exhaustive or specific. Those seeking legal advice should contact an attorney.


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