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Sistemas Operativos II M.C. Juan Carlos Olivares Rojas.

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Presentation on theme: "Sistemas Operativos II M.C. Juan Carlos Olivares Rojas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sistemas Operativos II M.C. Juan Carlos Olivares Rojas

2 Temario 1.0 Repaso 1.1 Sistemas distribuidos. 1.2 Concepto y características de los SOR 1.3 Concepto y características del SOD.

3 Operating System Review Operating Systems History Basic Concept about OS OS Architecture –Monolitic –By Layers –Microkernel –Others OS Virtualization OS Installation (Solaris, Windows 7, Linux, FreeBSD, MacOSX).

4 Operating System Description What’s an Operating System? It’s a software which control a computer, It acts like a Human-Machine Interface. It manages all the resources (hardware and software) of a Computer System.

5 Introduction

6 Operating Systems The objective of an Operating System is the operation of a Computer. It’s the computer principal software which execute when the computer is turned on. Does a calculator have an Operating System? Why?

7 Introduction Physical Devices Microprogramming Machine Language OPERATING SYSTEM CompilersEditors Command Interpreter Bank Systems ReservationWeb Browser Application programs Hardware System programs

8 Operating Systems The Operating System development is influented by technological development. The Operating System premisses (objective function) are: Minimize the effort (human-machine frontier). Maximize the computer resources performance

9 Operating Systems The principal resources managed by an Operating System are: Process, Tasks, Applications (Process Management) Devices, Peripherals (I/O Management) Memory (Memory Management) Data (File System)

10 Operating Systems

11 The esential part of an Operating System is the Kernel. An Operating System is executed in supervisor mode of the microprocessor (it can access all microprocessor functions). The programs are executed in user mode.

12 Operating Systems The Operating Systems actions depends of the applications that run on it. It’s no the same resource administration for a monouser system than multiuser system, or process administration in a multitask system than time-sharing system. Operating Systems are totally dependent of computer architectures.

13 Operating Systems This is the reason why Operating Systems such as Windows can not be executed over Power PC Architectures, because it´s linked an x86 Intel Architecture. Recently 64 bits microprocessor are becoming popular, for this reason is necesary and special operating Systems for the correct resources utilization.

14 Operating Systems Actually Operating System supports multitasking and concurrence in native form on multiprocessor or multicore processors. For the good use of resources, Operating Systems need to use politics and control mechanism. An Operating System has to plan, control, drive and execute all the system operations.

15 Operating Systems The programs can access directly to some function in superivor mode throught a System Call. An operating System has an interface to users and other interface to programms (programmers). In UNIX this distnction doesn’t exist.

16 Operating Systems As well hardware and software are not mutually exclussive (they are a binom). Operating System are in the middle of this resources. Actually the trend is construct operating Systems for Emedded Devices such as: ATM, watchs, PDAs, cell phones, electrodoméstics, etc.

17 Operating Systems Another Operating Systems which are growing are Real-Time OS. Examples of Operating Systems are: DOS, Windows, Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, among others.

18 Operating Systems History Quiz 1 What was the firt OS for 32 Bits PCs? When was Linux OS appear? What was the first important OS constructed enterily in high level programming language? What is the most recent Linux Version?

19 Operating System History In the begining Turing created the machine… The Operating System History comes hand in hand with hardware and software evolution. The computer paradigms have changed with the pass of the times, for instance de 1950 ‐ 1970 decade the concept of “one computer many users” appears.

20 Operating Systems History In1980 ‐ 1990 decade the computer paradigm shifted to “one computer one user”. Finally in this decade, the paradigm shift to “one user many computers”.

21 Operating Systems In the Generation 0 (1940’s) and First Generation (1950’s) the Operating System doesn’t exist, reason why users have to configure the circuits for operating the machine. The second generation (1960’s) appears the first OS which principal fuction was to act like a extended machine.

22 Operating System History All the OS was constructed in assembler language, reason why it was totally dependant of the machine. The OS only can manipulate some peripherals. The batch processing was used to improve the resources use. In Third Generation (1970’s) OS was more complex because they used concepts such as multiprogramming and time-sharing.

23 Operating Systems Unix was the first OS constructed in a High- Level Language (C Languaje) with only the critical part (I/O) in assembler. In the Fourth Generation (1980’s) appears the first extremely-used OS in PCs: DOS and Windows. Reason why OS was more complex and more easy to use.

24 Operating System History Since 1990 the computer network utilization (overall Internet) and multimedia in OS was extended in such way than today are present in any OS.


26 Windows and Linux Evolution 1970198019902000 VMS v1.0 Windows NT 3.1 NT 4.0 Windows 2000 Windows XP Server 2003 1970198019902000 Nacimiento de UNIX UNIX público UNIX V6 Linux v1.0 v2.0 v2.2v2.3v2.4 v2.6

27 OS Basic Concepts Process is a program in execution. File: basic unit of persistent storage information Shell: a part in an OS which functions like an interface (front end) between programms and user with OS (back end). This term generally is focused in Command Line Interfaces (CLI).

28 OS Basic Concepts System Call: is the way in how programs can acess to supervisor mode instructions of microprocessor throught kernel. It’s important don’t confuse the call system and command terms; for instance, kill is a command (calling by usuers) which let to send signals to process; and kill() is system call (calling by a programm) which do the same.

29 OS Structure Operating Systems have evolutioned in its internal form trying to achive its performance. All OS have a process which fuction is load the OS and the Applications, this process is called Loader. For instance, Linux have loader like LILO (Linux LOader) and Grub. The loader use a boostrap to expand the OS.

30 OS Structure All OS have a core process called Kernel, it has the basic routines of an OS. Some OS use the microkernel concept, this have the function to coordinate to the other parts of an OS such as : I/O Devices, Process, Memory and File Systems. The structure of and OS could be different but in most of the time are very similar because some OS use Open Standards.

31 OS Architecture The first structure for an OS was Monolithic Structure. This doesn´t have any real structure, this is the reason why OS is only one big process called Kernel. Other well-know structure for OS is client- server model in where OS have server process management each one of system resources and kernel functions in base a one client making request to servers.

32 Monolithic Architecture App System Services Hardware OS Procedures User Mode Kernel Mode

33 OS Architecture This Client-Server function has to let OS portability to another architectures such as distrubted architectures, where each service could be localizate in diferent remote machines. Other Architecture was Ring Architecture, where OS is structured in concentric circles called Rings. Each Ring has a well-defined structure.

34 OS Architecture The most used Architecture in OS is Layer Architecture, where Layers are divided in diferente levels like Ring Architectures. Inside each layer can exist two o more levels. Layers can interact with higher an lower levels thus in the same level.

35 Layer Architecture OS Application Program Application Program Application Program System Service File System I/O and Memory Management System Process Management Hardware User Mode Kernel Mode

36 Microkernel Architecture Memory Server Client Application Network Server Process Server File Server Display Server Microkernel Hardware Request Response User Mode Kernel Mode

37 Windows NT High-Level Architecture OS/2 Windows POSIX Environment Subsystems User’s Application DLL Subsystem Windows User/GDI Device Driver Executive Device HandlerKernel Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) User Mode Kernel Mode Services and System Process Windows

38 Windows NT Architecture Interfaces de Hardware(buses, Dispositivos de E/S, interrupcciones, intervalos de temporizadores, DMA, control de memoria cache, etc.) System Dispatch System Task ManagerExplorer SvcHost.ExeWinMgt.ExeSpoolSv.Exe Control Management Service LSASS Object Handler Windows USER, GDI File System Cache I/O Manager Envinroments Subsystem User Applications DLLs Subsystem Procesos del SistemaServicesApplications System Thread User Mode Kernel Mode NTDLL.DLL File System and Device Drivers WinLogon Session Handler Services.Exe POSIX Windows DLLs Plug and Play Manager Energy Manager Security Reference Monitor Virtua Memory Process and Threads Local Process Call Grpahical Manager Kernel Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) (Kernel Mode Interfaceel) Configuration Manager (Registry) OS/2 Windows

39 Windows NT Architecture Kernel and Executive are located at ntoskrnl.exe program Inside Executive are located File, Memory and Process Manager. Device Handler are located in files with *.sys management.

40 Windows NT Architecture Wndows Handler is located windowsk.sys file. HAL is located at hal.dll Most of Windows Code is writed in C, some of this component are developed at C++. One of the trends is writing legacy modules in C++ Operating System such Windows 7 has more than 39 millions of line of codes.

41 41 Windows NT Architecture Core OS components: NTOSKRNL.EXEExecutive and kernel HAL.DLLHardware abstraction layer NTDLL.DLLInternal Support Systems Fundamentales System Process: SMSS.EXEService Management Process WINLOGON.EXESystem Authentication Process SERVICES.EXEControl Services Process LSASS.EXELocal Security Authority Subsystem Windows Subsystem: CSRSS.EXE*Windows Process Subsystem WIN32K.SYSUSER and GDI Components KERNEL32/USER32/GDI32.DLLWindows subsystem DLLs

42 WoW64 Win32 over Win64 is the Windows Subsytem which Execute Win32 applications in 64-bits environments in transparent mode. Other diferences implie in the word length of data and addressing memory of an OS. HOMEWORK: Writing a Research Document where compares Windows NT Architecture with Linux 2.6.

43 WoW64 64-bit ntdll.dll Wow64.dll Wow64win.dll Wow64cpu.dll Win32k.sys Ejecutivo Modo Kernel Modo Usuario 32-bit ntdll.dll 32-bit EXE, DLLs

44 OS Virtualization Virtualization isn’t a new concept. I was originated in 1970s by IBM in its OS VM/360. The “virtual” term means “a thing with simulated existence Abstraction. Every Problem in Computing Science can be solved by adding an indirection layer.

45 OS Virtualization In Computing a lot of things are virtual: Virtual Reality VLAN (Virtual LAN) VNC (Virtual NetworkComputing) VPN (Virtual PrivateNetwork) Virtual Memory Virtual Storage JVM (Java Virtual Machine) ….

46 OS Virtualization Actual Problems in OS: –Security (viruses) –Legacy Software –Performance –Incompatibility between applications in diferent OS All these problems can be solved through Virtualization. Virtualization is another OS Architecture using and special core element called Exokernel.

47 OS Virtualization Aproximately only 10% of time a computer is working. “Virtualization = Freedom. One server can be the work of many” Around 20% (in 2006 10%) of server are virtualized.

48 OS Virtualization

49 Some virtualization tools are: Bochs and QEMU (emulation) VMWARE, Virtual PC, Virtual Box, Parallels Workstation (Completed Virtualization) Xen andUser-ModeLinux (UML) paravirtualization Linux V-Server and OpenVZvirtualización (OS Virtualized)

50 OS Virtualization



53 Tarea Instalar una máquina virtual en una Laptop o Pendrive. Traer un disco de instalación de un sistema operativo diferente al de la máquina anfitriona (por ejemplo si tengo windows traer un sistema *X). Práctica 1: revisión de las máquinas del laboratorio, particionamiento e instalación de sistemas operativos reales.

54 1.1 Sistemas Distribuidos 1.1.1 Ventajas y desventajas contra los sistemas centralizados. 1.1.2 Modelo cliente servidor. 1.1.3 Características de hardware. 1.1.4 Características de software. 1.1.5 Direccionamiento lógico y físico.

55 Referencias Stallings. Sistemas Operativos. Ed. Megabyte. Noriega Editores. Cualquier libro de Sistemas Operativos de Red y Distribuidos.

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