Presentation on theme: "Informal Cooperative Learning for Large Enrollment Classes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Informal Cooperative Learning for Large Enrollment Classes Karl A. SmithSTEM Education Center / Technological Leadership Institute / Civil Engineering – University of Minnesota &Engineering Education – Purdue University-King Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDesign and Implementation of Cooperative LearningAugust 19-21, 2013
2 Session 3 Layout Welcome and Overview Reflection on Session 2 Review of importance of student engagementInformal Cooperative Learning Principles and StrategiesAligning outcomes, assessment, and instructionDesign and Implementation2
3 Reflection and Dialogue Individually reflect on your practice of Pedagogies of Engagement, especially Cooperative Learning and Challenge-Based Learning (Case, Problem, Project). Write for about 1 minuteKey ideas, insights, applications – Success StoriesQuestions, concerns, challengesDiscuss with your neighbor for about 2 minutesSelect one Insight, Success Story, Comment, Question, etc. that you would like to present to the whole group if you are randomly selected
4 Cooperative Learning Introduced to Engineering – 1981 Smith, K.A., Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T., The use of cooperative learning groups in engineering education. In L.P. Grayson and J.M. Biedenbach (Eds.), Proceedings Eleventh Annual Frontiers in Education Conference, Rapid City, SD, Washington: IEEE/ASEE, 26‑32.4JEE December 1981
5 “Throughout the whole enterprise, the core issue, in my view, is the mode of teaching and learning that is practiced. Learning ‘about’ things does not enable students to acquire the abilities and understanding they will need for the twenty-first century. We need new pedagogies of engagement that will turn out the kinds of resourceful, engaged workers and citizens that America now requires.”Russ Edgerton (reflecting on higher education projects funded by the Pew Memorial Trust)5
7 8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, Lila M. Smith
8 Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee Shulman – MSU Med School – PBL Approach (late 60s – early 70s), President Emeritus of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College TeachingShulman, Lee S Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4),8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms,
9 What do we do about these pathologies? Activity – Engage learners in meaningful and purposeful activitiesReflection – Provide opportunitiesCollaboration – Design interactionPassion – Connect with things learners care aboutShulman, Lee S Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4),9
10 8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, Lila M. Smith
11 Student Engagement Research Evidence Perhaps the strongest conclusion that can be made is the least surprising. Simply put, the greater the student’s involvement or engagement in academic work or in the academic experience of college, the greater his or her level of knowledge acquisition and general cognitive development …(Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005).Active and collaborative instruction coupled with various means to encourage student engagement invariably lead to better student learning outcomes irrespective of academic discipline (Kuh et al., 2005, 2007).See Smith, et.al, 2005 and Fairweather, 2008, Linking Evidence and Promising Practices in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Undergraduate Education -11
12 The American College Teacher: National Norms for 2007-2008 Methods Used in “All” or “Most”All – 2005All – 2008AssistantCooperative Learning485966Group Projects333661Grading on a curve191714Term/research papers35444712
13 The Active Learning Continuum ProblemsDrive theCourseInformalGroupActivitiesStructuredTeamActivitiesMake thelecture activeInstructorCenteredStudentCenteredActiveLearningCollaborativeLearningProblem-BasedLearningCooperativeLearningStrong Evidence Base – CooperativeLearning & Challenge-Based LearningPrince, M. (2010). NAE FOEE
14 Informal Cooperative Learning January 2, 2009—Science, Vol. 323 –Calls for evidence-based instruction practices
15 Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom Informal Cooperative Learning GroupsFormal Cooperative Learning GroupsCooperative Base GroupsSee Cooperative LearningHandout (CL College-804.doc)15
16 Book Ends on a Class Session Smith, K.A Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes. Energizing large classes: From small groups to learning communities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2000, 81, [NDTL81Ch3GoingDeeper.pdf]16
17 Book Ends on a Class Session Advance OrganizerFormulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighbor) -- repeated every minutesSession Summary (Minute Paper)What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?What was the “muddiest” point in this session?Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"
18 FOCUS QUESTION Formulate-Share-Listen-Create Informal Cooperative Learning GroupIntroductory Pair Discussion of aFOCUS QUESTIONFormulate your response to the question individuallyShare your answer with a partnerListen carefully to your partner's answerWork together to Create a new answer through discussion18
19 Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with Concept Tests PhysicsPeer InstructionEric Mazur - Harvard –Peer Instruction –Richard Hake –ChemistryChemistry ConcepTests - UW MadisonVideo: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTestsModularChem Consortium –STEMTECVideo: How Change Happens: Breaking the “Teach as You Were Taught” Cycle – Films for the Humanities & Sciences –Harvard – Derek Bok CenterThinking Together & From Questions to Concepts: Interactive Teaching in Physics –19
22 Physics (Mechanics) Concepts: The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.The choice of topics is based on careful thought about what the fundamental issues and concepts are in Newtonian dynamics.Uses common speech rather than cueing specific physics principles.The distractors (wrong answers) are based on students' common inferences.22
23 Workshop Biology Traditional passive lecture vs. “Workshop biology” Source: Udovic et al. 2002
24 BiologySource: Knight, J. and Wood, W. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biol Educ. 4(4): 298–310.
25 Can be short term and ad hoc May be used to break up a long lecture Informal CooperativeLearning GroupsCan be used at any timeCan be short term and ad hocMay be used to break up a long lectureProvides an opportunity for students to process material they have been listening to (Cognitive Rehearsal)Are especially effective in large lecturesInclude "book ends" procedureAre not as effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or Cooperative Base GroupsBarr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazineBill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.
26 Strategies for Energizing Large Classes: From Small Groups to Learning Communities:Jean MacGregor,James Cooper,Karl Smith,Pamela RobinsonNew Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 81, 2000.Jossey- BassTable summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"