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Linking Social Innovation and Smart Specialisation

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1 Linking Social Innovation and Smart Specialisation
FP7 SmartSpec Project, Learning Journey Workshop, Ljubljana, 29-30, September 2014 Ranald Richardson, Pedro Marques, and Kevin Morgan

2 Presentation Structure
Introduction: Key objectives of WP2 The (fuzzy) concept of Social innovation Linking Social Innovation and Smart Specialisation The Societal Challenge approach Potential limitations of societal challenge approach Open discussion: other approaches

3 WP2 Key Objectives To explore the conceptual links between S3 and social innovation To identify how social innovation can contribute to S3 strategies focusing in particular on: The role of public service innovation around RIS The involvement of users and citizens in processes of design and decision The role of social enterprises as sources of social innovation We look at these issues through the lens of the ageing societal challenge combining conceptual and empirical approaches Our core deliverables are academic papers but we seek to contribute to directly to policy thinking

4 So what is Social Innovation?
“An idea longing for a theory….no consensus regarding its relevance or specific meaning… lacking in clarity…. ‘a Babel-like terminological confusion’” (Pol & Ville, 2009; Moulaert, et al, 2013;Oosterlynk, 2013) A ‘quasi-concept’ whose utility lies in grouping researchers and policymakers around a set of issues and concerns to generate social knowledge of value to both” (Jensen and Harrison, 2013) BEPA’s 3 broad ‘interdependent’ categories (BEPA, 2011) grass roots: social innovation for unmet social demands societal challenges: where ‘social’ and ‘economic’ boundaries blur in order to better meet society wide problems systemic: fundamental changes in attitudes, values, strategies, policies, organisational structures and processes, delivery systems and services…re-shaping society itself Our view: SI is context dependent - Our Context is S3 Angst-ridden SI academics searching for the meaning of life or least of SI, but perhaps not wanting to put themselves out of a job by finding it A depoliticised technocratic, but still evangelical approach incorporating multiple trends, tendencies, topics and values under an instrumentalist social innovation rubric – A pragmatic shoulder shrugging less ambitious – it’s a device for stimulating ideas and possibilities particularly between academics and policymakers So we are in a good place today to test this theory!

5 Social innovations as processes and outcomes
“Social innovations are innovations that are social in both their ends and their means…new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs (more effectively than alternatives) and create new social relationships or collaborations. The process of social interactions between individuals undertaken to reach certain outcomes is participative, involves a number of actors and stakeholders who have a vested interest in solving a social problem, and empowers the beneficiaries. It is in itself an outcome as it produces social capital” (BEPA, 2010: 9-10, italics added)

6 ‘Disconnects’ between RIS and SI
Social Innovation Social goals Social policy Social values Resource redistribution Just socio-economic arrangements Critical of technology bias Anti/post/operating-in-the- interstices of capitalism Limited regional strategy role Fragmented communities of social development practice Economic goals Economic-industrial policy Market values Wealth creation Efficient socio-economic arrangements Technology biased European model of capitalism Established regional strategy role Fragmented communities of regional economic development practice Separate multi-territorial governance silos

7 Emerging Models of Social and Economic Collaboration
Triple Helix + users model Firm-centred LL model

8 Emerging Models of Social and Economic Collaboration
Citizen centred QH model Public-sector-centred LL model

9 SI and the Four Cs Can SI contribute to Four Cs?
Choices: the selection of a few investment priorities based on a process of entrepreneurial discovery to identify promising areas of specialisation Competitive advantage: building on current economic specialisation and mobilising talent by matching RTD+I with business needs and capacities Critical mass: developing world class excellence clusters and providing arenas for related variety and cross-sectoral links which drive specialised technological diversification Collaborative Leadership: collective endeavour involving the academic world, public authorities, business and innovation users Can SI contribute to Four Cs? Bring different values to motivate action Extend domains of entrepreneurial discovery Help move S3 beyond STI or at least complement STI bias Enhance process and expand collective endeavour to underpin S3 Can S3 contribute to SI?

10 Focus on Societal Challenges
Societal challenges where ‘social’ and ‘economic’ boundaries blur in order better to meet society wide problems

11 Why choose ‘societal challenge’ (SC)
Why focus on societal challenges? EU Grand Challenges Global policy buy-in to ‘challenge’ approach – OECD, WEF, etc. €30bn Horizon 2020 for SC S3 strategies can… be a powerful instrument to tackle (societal) challenges (CEC, 2013) Challenge perspective should be included in regional strategies Early research indicates many regions adopting SC approach Most promising space for empirics Health, demographic change and wellbeing Food security, sustainable agriculture, marine and maritime research, and the bio-economy Secure, clean and efficient energy Smart, green and integrated transport Inclusive, innovative and secure societies Climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials

12 The Ageing Challenge and Opportunity
Ageing society as a challenge and an opportunity “Ageing isn’t a problem, but a source of innovation and growth” (Nellie Kroes) Markets innovations Innovation of new products and services Innovative approaches to ageing consumers and citizens Public service innovations More cost effectively delivering public services Planning and delivering public services New sources of public service delivery New sources of innovation funding New sources of labour requiring labour market innovations ‘New’ sources of entrepreneurship: private , social and third sectors Direct contribution to innovation processes “the wisdom economy”

13 Smart Spatial Specialisation (S3)
S3 has a dual territorial logic At the European level S3 is about overcoming duplication, creating greater collaboration and a more diverse innovation system At the (national) regional level it is about specialisation for competitive advantage around existing or credibly realisable excellence European strength through diversity based on local ‘particularism’

14 Societal Challenge Innovation at the Europe Level: Health and Care Initiatives (Boekholt, 2013)
European Innovation Partnership AHA Organisational change Horizon 2020 Health, Demographic Change, Wellbeing Cultural change Ambient Assisted Living Prevention chronic diseases Social interaction of elderly people Assisted daily living Personalised medicines Integrated care systems Independent living Bio Markers Self management of daily life Service integration Early Diagnosis User Empowerment Distant patient monitoring Training Interoperationability for e Health Innovative Medicine Initiative Digital Agenda for Europe EU legislation cross border healthcare Health for Growth

15 Innovation and the Ageing challenge Built-in technological bias?
Policies and initiatives Technology Innovation and Ageing Societal Challenge Demographic Change Grand Challenge Digital Agenda for Europe: Ageing Societal Challenge (DG Connect) Horizon 2020: Health, Demographic Change and Wellbeing European Institute for Technology (EIT): Innovation for Healthy Active Ageing Thematic Field and KICs Call European Year of Active Ageing European eHealth Forum: Technology for Health, Ageing and Economic Growth (DG SANCO) EIP on Active Healthy Ageing Ambient Assisted Living JP JIP on Demographic Change EJIP on Demographic Change: Technologies for Living Partnerships for Robots in Europe (Health Care and Human Robotic Interaction

16 Regional market response strategy (EURADA, 2011)

17 But S3 requires specialisation
Adapted from Lower Saxony Region RIS3

18 S3 and Ageing Challenge: Supporting Alternative Innovation Domains?
Home region as test market, innovation test-bed, and a collective innovation environment for SC technologies, with extra-regional collaboration and market search SI as ‘handmaiden’ of economic growth? Medical tech Health Social isolation ICTs & Smart Transport Assistive technologies ILH Medical & Life Sciences Built environment ICT Transport

19 S3 and Ageing Challenge: Supporting Alternative Innovation Domains?
Also use technology innovation as catalyst for SI in home region, through PPPPs, culture and org change, new training regimes , etc. Or focus on non-technology innovation, e.g., developing new services process consultancy Medical tech Health Social isolation ICTs & Smart Transport Assistive technologies ILH Medical & Life Sciences Built environment ICT Transport

20 All regions face societal challenges, but is it an opportunity for all?
A number of ‘challenges’: The Capacity Challenge The Prioritization Challenge The Stakeholder Engagement Challenge The ‘Policy Mix’ Challenge The Multi-level Governance Challenge The Cross-border Challenge The Smart (Evidence-based) Policy Making Challenge The Policy Capacity Challenge

21 Some examples Capacity Challenge Prioritization challenge
Lack of private sector capacity in Societal Challenge theme(s) and of related variety proximity Lack of critical mass to prioritize potential Little regional power or responsibility Prioritization challenge Lack of integrated (social-economic) networks - missing actors in entrepreneurial search process The ‘tyranny’ of traditional priorities

22 Some examples The Stakeholder Challenge Policy-mix Challenge
Interdisciplinary, inter-sectoral, intra-organisational silos Engaging civic organisations and users meaningfully and for long-term Engaging public sector for innovative solutions in an era of austerity Policy-mix Challenge Integrating policymakers Integrating funding streams Multi-level governance Challenge Vertical and horizontal alignment Policy and responsibility split between social and economic

23 The Cross-border collaboration challenge
Difficult to design cross-border innovation strategies multiplied in context of national social strategies Social policy actors tend to be concerned with their ‘own backyard’ The Smart Policy Making Challenge - evidence Does social or economic have priority Can you measure both Social indicators and metrics underdeveloped Policy Capacity Challenge Can regions create the competencies mix and formal and informal new structures required?

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