Presentation on theme: "Everardo Macias, Patrick Tomboc Eamonn F. Healy, Chemistry Department,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Peptidomimetic Inhibitors : An Integrated Synthetic and Theoretical Approach to their Design Everardo Macias, Patrick Tomboc Eamonn F. Healy,Chemistry Department,St. Edward’s University,Austin TX 78704
2 AbstractPeptidomimetics represent a powerful approach to pharmaceutical treatments based on enzymatically controlled reactions. Peptidomimetics are simply small organic molecules that serve to mimic the transition state of the natural substrate and thus serve to competitively inhibit the enzyme process. We are focusing on the design and synthesis of inhibitors for the serine protease thrombin. Thrombin plays a critical role in the formation of insoluble fibrin that can lead to life threatening medical conditions. Our synthetic scheme utilizes hydroxy-aldehydes in the synthesis of polypeptide isoteres for active site inhibition. QSAR studies aid in the understanding of the steric and hydrophobic requirements of the enzymaticbinding sites.
3 EnzymeThrombin, a sub-class of the hydrolyases is a serine protease that promotes blood clottingThrombin has an active site consisting of the catalytic triad: Ser 195, His 57 and Asp 102
4 Enzyme BindingSiteIn addition thrombin has three binding sites, labelled as S1, S2 and S3, that determine the strength and specificity of bindingThe lipophilicity of S3 has been well determinedS3S2S1
5 Peptidomimetics Saquinavir Small peptide-like molecules that mimic transition state of substrate and work by competitive inhibiting binding of the natural substratePeptide analog must be stableDrug must be a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme but can be irreversible if the enzyme is unique to the diseaseSaquinavir
6 Project DesignDesign a polypeptide isotere based on a natural thrombin substrate (Phe-Pro-Arg tripeptide), shown on the rightOptimize a generalized scheme for isotere synthesisModel the S2 and S3 steric and hydrophobic requirements
7 ProjectUse Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) to identify optimum R2 and R3 binding fragmentsSynthesize the isotere, shown in red on the right, designed to mimic the serine-195 mediated transition state
11 Structure-Activity Results from Ref 2 R3 R2 Ki (nm)CH3 benzyl (S) 17CH3 phenethyl (R) 550CH3 phenethyl (S) 235CH3 phenylpropyl (R) 100CH3 phenylpropyl (S) 4H benzyl (R) 1112H benzyl (S) 8
12 QSARQuantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) represent an attempt to correlate structural or property descriptors of compounds with their activities. These physicochemical descriptors, including parameters describing hydrophobicity, topology, electronic effects and steric effects, can be determined empirically or by computational methods. Once a correlation between structure and activity/property is found, new compounds can be screened to select those with the desired properties. Activities in which QSAR has found wide application include biological assays, chemical measurements, environmental risk assessment and de novo drug design.
13 QSAR MethodologyLinear regression analysis of the predicted versus observed activity/property is most commonly used to develop the QSAR relationship. The higher the r2 value the better the fit. The technique of leave-one-out cross-validation, quantified as rCV, is used to assess the predictive power of the QSAR model.Two parameters, molecular connectivity and valence connectivity, developed by Kier and Hall were used extensively in this study. While these are fundamentally topological parameters they have been shown to contain electronic as well as structural information.
15 ResultsPreliminary results, summarized by the plot of the predicted (y-axis) versus experimental (x-axis) binding constants, clearly show that a functional predictive model of the steric and electronic requirements of the S2 and S3 binding sites can be constructed. Initial results seem to indicate the energetic descriptors are more useful as predictors than simple topological properties. This work continues.
18 References Acknowledgements Alessandro Dondoni, et al.; Synthesis of TSTs and Reactions with Carbonyl Compounds; J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53,Benoit Bachand , et al.; Synthesis and Structure-Reactivity of Potent Bicyclic Lactam Thrombin Inhibitors; Bioinorg. & Med. Chem. 1999, 9,AcknowledgementsWe gratefully acknowledge the support of the Welch Foundation in the form of a Departmental Research Grant