Presentation on theme: "Smart specialisation as a driver for strategic cluster policies"— Presentation transcript:
1Smart specialisation as a driver for strategic cluster policies RIS3 ECA Workshop:“Clusters new trends and their challenges for implementing RIS3”22 June, BrusselsJan Larosse, Department Economy-Science-Innovation, Flemish Government
2Overview An argument in three steps: The OECD Project on smart specialisation: a new policy approachMain features: clusters are key components in S3First conclusionsThe evolution of cluster policies in Flanders: a new strategyRecent changes: cluster policy becomes core of new industrial policyThe role of OECD ‘action studies’ in our policy developmentCluster policies in times of structural change: a paradigm shift?S3 in the context of the financial-economic crisisNew challenges for cluster policiesCluster policies and cluster management need to develop new strategic capacities to play their role in the governance of transformation of the present growth model
31. OECD Project: ‘Smart specialisation for innovation-driven growth’ The OECD started June 2011 the first integrated policy learning project to support design and assessment of strategies for smart specialisation (in cooperation with DG Regio & IPTS) Basic structure:‘Base-line’: develop evidence-based strategic intelligence to assess present specialisations and priorities (measurement)‘Beyond the base-line’: design discovery driven strategy processes to enable future choices (case-studies)ObjectivesManageable and consistent policy tool box for policy makers (OECD Innovation Policy Platform)Policy recommendations to use smart specialisation for leveraging smart growthKey ConceptsSmart specialisation is largely about the policy process to select and prioritise fields or areas where a cluster of activities should be developed: let entrepreneurs discover the right domains of future specialisations (‘an entrepreneurial discovery process’)‘Regional development’ holds a central place, but takes an international viewpoint of discovering comparative advantages (= ‘open’ regional innovation system)What is smart? A knowledge-based, interactive and pro-active strategy development
4Structure and Expected results PART 1: What is the Baseline ?PART 2: Beyond the Baseline ?Workshop 122-24 Nov. 2011INDICATORS-BASEDTEMPLATEGOVERNANCEWorkshop 210-11 May, ParisCASE-STUDIES(‘Action learning’)Workshop 3Brussels, end-2012FINAL REPORTIndicator-based Specialisation Profilesfor strategic monitoring of international comparitive advantage(in science, technology, employment, export)Governance Templatesfor (self)-assessiment of capacities in priority setting, participatory processes,strategic intelligence.Case-studiesfor comparative policy learning on smart/interactive strategy development asan ‘entrepreneurial discovery process‘Policy synthesison the role of smart specialisation as a new policy approach for co-creation of ‘direction’ in the transformation of the economy
5Participants : 13C – 16 regions -17 CS AustriaRegional policy mixesMulti-governanceFinlandCross-cutting competencesand lead marketsGermanyInter-regionalinnovation strategyBelgiumNano for HealthSustainable ChemistryPolandLow-techmanufacturing sectorsThe NetherlandsMulti-level governanceSouth KoreaPhotonics IndustrySpainAerospaceRegional industrial policyTurkeyAutomotive sectorUKLow Carbon VehiclesAustraliaRural research andDevelopment activityCzech RepublicEstoniaLead countries (Case-studies + final report)Case-studiesJoined later: Slovenia, Tcheque Republic
6Example of an economic specialisation profile: mature industries in Flanders Source: OECD project Smart specialisation in global value chains (ECOOM)Even these simple spider graphs can trigger other ‘stories’ and inspire new strategic decion frameworks
7Preliminary findingsOECD has a role in setting ‘standards’ to accelerate conceptual and policy development and support policy makers with a ‘toolbox’ of indicators en guidelines:Smart specialisation is a policy approach for prioritisation of (public) RD&I investments in times of hard budget constraint and structural change. = 4-CsCHOICESCOLLABORATION / CONNECTIVITY / CROSS-FERTILISATIONCOMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE, capitalising on COMPLEMENTARITY in value chainsCHALLENGESSmart Specialisation Strategies are developed in a multi-actor and multi-level policy environment = Clusters (as nodes in global value-chains) are the engineStrategic governance has to be adapted to the climate of uncertainty in decentralised decision environments = Discovery process, aided by shared strategic intelligence & supporting methodologies for co-creation of shared visions, road maps,
9SMART SPECIALISATIONS: where to ‘discover’ them? Smart Specialisation is focussing local competences on gobal challenges
10SMART SPECIALISATION STRATEGY: focus on lead-clusters …Therefore smart specialisation is embodied by innovation clusters as unique local eco-systems in global value chains.
11Catalysing role of strategic intelligence Shared visionsCommon Road MapsSpecialisation profiles to help identify comparative advantages (evidence-based)Promote clusters with unique eco-systems that exploit the positive sum game of open innovationGiving a role to all regions
122. Recent evolutions in Flanders cluster policies Flanders has a tradition of strong bottom-up S&T policy: selection only on quality standards (‘excellence’ and ‘ROI’), but no clear thematic or sectoral prioritiesBut history has created specialisation patterns! Often institutionalised (strong strategic research centres) or evolved from FDI (decided by multinationals).Smart specialisation approach can catalyse change process: recognise the entrenched priorities (historic strengths that are not always strengths anymore)It is a process approach, not a mechanism for top-down choice policy.The bottleneck = strategic capacity (strategic cluster platforms!)S3 in Flanders = no strong ex ante choices but a commitment to travel the road of transformation by targeted innovation
13‘Innovation Crossroads’: challenge driven innovation policy ‘Innovation Centre Flanders’, concept note adopted by Flemish Government on May 27th 2011Societal challenges recognised as driver of a new innovation strategyDeparture from a purely bottom-up research and innovation policySix ‘innovation crossroads’ are identified for the development of specific innovation strategiesEco-innovationGreen energySustainable mobbility and logisticsInnovation in careSocial InnovationIndustrial transformation (specified for core sectors)‘Innovation crossroads’ are a space where interdisciplinary research and open innovation can contribute to societal and economic value creation.‘Innovation Direction Groups’ are assigned by the Minister to advise on such strategies (ongoing)
14Transformation processes: core of New Industrial Policy ‘White Paper New Industrial Policy’, adopted by Flemish Government on May 27th 2011:Action Plan with 50 Actions in economy-innovation-work policy for a ‘new productivity offensive’, ‘Factory of the Future’ and ‘system innovation’Round Tables are organised to elaborate a ‘Strategic Action Plan’ for transformation in (ready) sectors.‘Transformation strategies’ are based on value chains, clusters and grand projects (cross-sectoral)New arrangements for policy coordination are gradually put in placeA targeted cluster policy will be developed (advised by an Industry Council). ‘Smart specialisation’ is adopted as a reference. This is a ‘discovery process’! Strong bottom-up drive.Frontrunner: FISCH (Flanders Initiative for Sustainable Chemistry) From 2007 onwards the sector federation developed a transformation strategy, supported by a broad mobilisation (more than 700 participants), in 3 parts: a strategic research programme on renewable materials and process intensification; open innovation infrastructures; new business models (e.g. chemical leasing) and sustainability criteria. Recent establishment of Transformation and Innovation Platform as cluster organisation (€5mln/y) that elaborates the road maps further.
15A three steps entrepreneurial discovery process Visioning: with focus on societal challenges (transition management / starting experiments) in Transition Arenas / Flanders in ActionStrategy development: with focus on transformation by innovation (strategies within the 6 innovation hubs) in Innovation Direction GroupsAction plan: with focus on investment projects in consortia driven by frontrunners (promoted in Round Tables and Transformation and Innovation Platforms)
16Smart Specialistion case-studies Flanders (OECD-TIP project on smart specialisation in global value chains)Action Learning= simultanious policy learning and policy developmentTwo transformation cases that benefit from a smart specialisation approach:Case 1: Sustainable ChemistryLargest petro-chemical cluster in Europe in Flanders; strong links with food, building e.o. sectors; cross-border links with NL and DETransition towards bio-based economy, but incomplete science base!How to become a world-class cluster in sustainable chemistry?Focus on strategic road mapping for a transition (also cross-border!)Case 2: Nano-for-HealthIMEC: largest independent nano-electronics research institute in Europe; technology platform for open innovation, but weak industrial cluster.Health: transition towards ‘personalised therapy’How to leverage this technology platform for these new application areas?Focus on the management of an emerging eco-system (cross-border!)
173. Conclusions for cluster policy Clusters are change agents!No lobby organisations or disguised sector organisationsLocus for choice processes linked with innovation & entrepreneurship! = smart specialisationPitfalls of ‘steady-state’ cluster policiesLock-in! / The ‘average’ member as a referenceDispersion: small-scale; fragmentation and duplicationFocus on cooperation between cluster organisations is not enoughTransition towards a strategic approach towards regional strengthsFrontrunners in the drivers’ seat for a pro-active & interactive strategyNew methods and personnel in cluster management (road mapping)Need for competition in cluster models (Spitzen cluster competition?)Smart specialisation is a policy approach for a new generation of cluster policies
18Three stage cluster development GENERIC CLUSTER POLICIES TARGETED CLUSTER POLICIESClusteringCo-location / agglomerationValue chainsOccasional collaborationCluster platformsOrganisedTriple helixSystematic use of synergiesLead ClustersStrategicSmart specialisationSystem innovation‘Two-stage gate keeping’ policies for cluster development?
19Impact of S3 on cluster management Take smart specialisation as an opportunity to enhance change management in cluster strategies.Transformation pressure is not the same for all. Different smart specialisation strategies: modernisation, diversification, transition, radical foundation. Consider what is the appropriate governance.Smart specialisation introduces the international positioning as a selective environment for own priorities, to challenge present distribution of priorities. Outward looking strategyAlign these strategies with common road maps at EU-level.Use cross-border linkages to complete/complement the regional clusters and gain critical mass. Focus on lead-clusters.Network clusters in GVC and in European knowledge base for common challenges (see Nano for Health network)S3 = ‘specialisation’ (focus on strengths), enhanced by strategic capacity and intelligence to facilitate future choices in cluster organisations
20Further questions? Please contact me! Thank you Department of Economy, Science and Innovation (EWI) Koning Albert II-laan 35 box 10, 1030 Brussels|/ tel